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Many cancer cells are characterized by increased glycolysis and decreased respiration, even under aerobic conditions. The molecular mechanisms underlying this metabolic reprogramming are unclear. Here we show that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) negatively regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and O(2) consumption in renal carcinoma cells lacking the von(More)
O(2) is the ultimate electron acceptor for mitochondrial respiration, a process catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase (COX). In yeast, COX subunit composition is regulated by COX5a and COX5b gene transcription in response to high and low O(2), respectively. Here we demonstrate that in mammalian cells, expression of the COX4-1 and COX4-2 isoforms is O(2)(More)
Stimulation of human colon cancer cells with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) induces expression of the VEGF gene, encoding vascular endothelial growth factor. In this article we demonstrate that exposure of HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells to IGF-1 induces the expression of HIF-1 alpha, the regulated subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1, a known(More)
The diverse physiological actions of the "biologic gases," O2, CO, NO, and H2S, have attracted much interest. Initially viewed as toxic substances, CO, NO, and H2S play important roles as signaling molecules. The multiplicity of gas actions and gas targets and the difficulty in measuring local gas concentrations obscures detailed mechanisms whereby gases(More)
A short model genome RNA and also the genome RNA of influenza A virus bearing both 5'- and 3'-terminal common sequences activated the interferon-induced double-stranded-RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, by stimulating autophosphorylation in vitro. The activated PKR catalyzed phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eucaryotic translation initiation factor 2(More)
MRI studies using the manual tracing method have shown a smaller-than-normal hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these studies have yielded inconsistent results, and brain structures other than the hippocampus have not been well investigated. A recently developed, fully automated method called voxel-based(More)
BACKGROUND Non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) is one of the most frequently encountered disorders in general practice in Western countries. The prevalence of this disorder in the Japanese, however, has not been fully investigated. This study is designed to clarify the characteristics and prevalence of dyspepsia in the Japanese. METHODS The subjects were 1139(More)
OBJECTIVE Small Japanese studies have suggested that patients with schizophrenia have higher rates of the HLA-DR1 gene than normal subjects. The authors' goal in the present study was to confirm this finding in a larger number of Japanese subjects. They also investigated the rate of DR4 in Japanese patients with schizophrenia because it has been reported(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia. Levels of the HIF-1alpha subunit increase under hypoxic conditions. Exposure of cells to growth factors, prostaglandin, and certain nitric oxide donors also induces HIF-1alpha expression under non-hypoxic conditions. We demonstrate that muscarinic(More)
A common missense mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (C677T) has been shown to be a risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease and neural tube defect. Deficient activity of MTHFR has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. Arinami et al found an(More)