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Infection of Escherichia coli by the filamentous phage f1 is initiated by binding of the phage to the tip of the F conjugative pilus via the gene III protein. Subsequent translocation of phage DNA requires the chromosomally encoded TolQ, TolR, and TolA proteins, after the pilus presumably has withdrawn, bringing the phage to the bacterial surface. Of these(More)
Cytoskeletons prepared by Triton X-100 treatment of tissue culture cells appear in stereo electron microscopy as a highly organized and interconnected three-dimensional matrix of different fibrous elements. Microfilament bundles and also tonofilament-like bundles are readily discerned when present in the cell type. In addition thinner fibers, some of which(More)
Akt activation requires phosphorylation of Thr(308) and Ser(473) by 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 and 2 (PDK1 and PDK2), respectively. While PDK1 has been cloned and sequenced, PDK2 has yet to be identified. The present study shows that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent p38 kinase activation regulates Akt phosphorylation and activity in human(More)
Nucleosomes fulfill the apparently conflicting roles of compacting DNA within eukaryotic genomes while permitting access to regulatory factors. Central to this is their ability to stably associate with DNA while retaining the ability to undergo rearrangements that increase access to the underlying DNA. Here, we have studied different aspects of nucleosome(More)
The group A colicins and the DNA of many single-stranded filamentous bacteriophage are able to use combinations of the Tol proteins to gain entrance into or across the membrane of Escherichia coli. The TolA protein is a 421-amino acid residue integral membrane protein composed of three domains. Domain I, consisting of the amino-terminal 47 amino acids,(More)
We describe mutations in a new bacterial locus, designated fii, which do not allow the filamentous bacteriophage f1 to infect bacteria harboring the F plasmid. Mutations at this locus do not affect the ability of F plasmid-containing bacteria to undergo conjugation or be infected by the F plasmid-specific RNA phage f2. The filamentous phage can still adsorb(More)
The TolQ, TolR, TolA, TolB, and Pal proteins appear to function in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane, as well as facilitating the uptake of the group A colicins and the DNA of the infecting filamentous bacteriophages. Sequence data showed that these genes are clustered in a 6-kb segment of DNA with the gene order orf1 tolQ tolR tolA tolB pal(More)
Sequence analysis showed that the cyd operon is immediately upstream of the tol-pal region. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrated that the transcript for the cyd operon terminates just before the promoter for transcription of the tol genes. The cyd transcript contains cydA cydB followed by two open reading frames: orfC, encoding a 37-residue peptide,(More)