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Recent studies have revealed extensive neocortical pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). The hippocampus is a unique archaeocortical structure understudied in MS. It plays a central role in episodic and anterograde memory-the most frequently impaired cognitive modalities in MS. This histopathological study aimed to investigate inflammatory demyelination and(More)
The α2δ-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is upregulated after sensory nerve injury and is also the therapeutic target of gabapentinoid drugs. It is therefore likely to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have examined mice in which α2δ-1 gene expression is disrupted, to determine whether α2δ-1 is involved in(More)
Abnormal cold sensitivity is a common feature of a range of neuropathies. In the murine somatosensory system, multiple aspects of cold sensitivity are dependent on TRPM8, both short term and in response to peripheral nerve injury. The specialized nature of cold-sensitive afferents and the restricted expression of TRPM8 render it an attractive target for the(More)
FTY720, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator, has shown efficacy in phase II trials in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Although this molecule is thought to immunosuppress by inhibiting lymphocyte egress from the lymph nodes, the full spectrum of FTY720's actions has not yet been uncovered. In this study, we(More)
Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated(More)
The gabapentinoid drugs gabapentin and pregabalin are key front-line therapies for various neuropathies of peripheral and central origin. Originally designed as analogs of GABA, the gabapentinoids bind to the α 2 δ-1 and α 2 δ-2 auxiliary subunits of calcium channels, though only the former has been implicated in the development of neuropathy in animal(More)
Menthol has historically been used topically to alleviate various pain conditions. At low concentrations, this non-selective TRPM8 agonist elicits a cooling sensation, however higher concentrations result in cold hyperalgesia in normal subjects and paradoxically analgesia in neuropathic patients. Through behavioural and electrophysiological means, we(More)
Prialt, a synthetic version of Ca(v)2.2 antagonist ω-conotoxin MVIIA derived from Conus magus, is the first clinically approved voltage-gated calcium channel blocker for refractory chronic pain. However, due to the narrow therapeutic window and considerable side effects associated with systemic dosing, Prialt is only administered intrathecally. N-triazole(More)
Cold hypersensitivity is evident in a range of neuropathies and can evoke sensations of paradoxical burning cold pain. Ciguatoxin poisoning is known to induce a pain syndrome caused by consumption of contaminated tropical fish that can persist for months and include pruritus and cold allodynia; at present no suitable treatment is available. This study(More)
Neuropathic pain represents a substantial clinical challenge; understanding the underlying neural mechanisms and back-translation of therapeutics could aid targeting of treatments more effectively. The ventral posterior thalamus (VP) is the major termination site for the spinothalamic tract and relays nociceptive activity to the somatosensory cortex;(More)