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Axonal degeneration is the major cause of permanent neurological disability in individuals with inherited diseases of myelin. Axonal and neuronal changes that precede axonal degeneration, however, are not well characterized. We show here that dysmyelinated lower motor neurons retract and regenerate dysfunctional presynaptic terminals, leading to severe(More)
At developing neuromuscular synapses in vertebrates, different motor axon inputs to muscle fibers compete for maintenance of their synapses. Competition results in progressive changes in synaptic structure and strength that lead to the weakening and loss of some inputs, a process that has been called synapse elimination. At the same time, a single input is(More)
Mammalian neuromuscular junctions are useful model synapses to study the relationship between synaptic structure and function, although these have rarely been studied together at the same synapses. To do this, we generated transgenic lines of mice in which the thy1.2 promoter drives expression of synaptopHluorin (spH) as a means of optically measuring(More)
The stability of dendritic spines in the neocortex is profoundly influenced by sensory experience, which determines the magnitude and pattern of neural firing. By optically manipulating the temporal structure of neural activity in vivo using channelrhodopsin-2 and repeatedly imaging dendritic spines along these stimulated neurons over a period of weeks, we(More)
Neurotrophin-dependent activation of the tyrosine kinase receptor trkB.FL modulates neuromuscular synapse maintenance and function; however, it is unclear what role the alternative splice variant, truncated trkB (trkB.T1), may have in the peripheral neuromuscular axis. We examined this question in trkB.T1 null mice and demonstrate that in vivo neuromuscular(More)
Members of the α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of fast synaptic transmission within the mammalian brain and spinal cord, representing attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we describe novel AMPA receptor modulators that require the presence of the(More)
Prolonged exposure to abnormally high calcium concentrations is thought to be a core mechanism underlying hippocampal damage in epileptic patients; however, no prior study has characterized calcium activity during seizures in the live, intact hippocampus. We have directly investigated this possibility by combining whole-brain electroencephalographic (EEG)(More)
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