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Stress-induced activation of the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system produces significant cognitive and behavioral effects, including enhanced arousal and attention. Improvements in discrimination task performance and memory have been attributed to this stress response. In contrast, for other cognitive functions that require cognitive flexibility,(More)
OBJECTIVES Our purpose is to investigate cognitive performance and extrapyramidal function early after ecstasy use. BACKGROUND Ecstasy, containing 3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has shown evidence of causing cognitive deficits and parkinsonian signs. Previous research has examined cognitive performance after a period of prolonged abstinence, but(More)
Recently an association was demonstrated between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9939609, within the FTO locus and obesity as a consequence of a genome wide association (GWA) study of type 2 diabetes in adults. We examined the effects of two perfect surrogates for this SNP plus 11 other SNPs at this locus with respect to our childhood obesity(More)
  • Struan F.A. Grant, Hui-Qi Qu, Jonathan P. Bradfield, Luc Marchand, Cecilia E. Kim, Joseph T. Glessner +21 others
  • 2009
OBJECTIVE Two recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have revealed novel loci for type 1 diabetes, a common multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component. To fully utilize the GWA data that we had obtained by genotyping 563 type 1 diabetes probands and 1,146 control subjects, as well as 483 case subject-parent trios, using the Illumina(More)
The dopamine receptor D2 (encoded by DRD2) is implicated in susceptibility to mental disorders and cocaine abuse, but mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain uncertain. DRD2 mRNA exists in two main splice isoforms with distinct functions: D2 long (D2L) and D2 short (D2S, lacking exon 6), expressed mainly postsynaptically and presynaptically,(More)
Measuring allelic RNA expression ratios is a powerful approach for detecting cis-acting regulatory variants, RNA editing, loss of heterozygosity in cancer, copy number variation, and allele-specific epigenetic gene silencing. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) has emerged as a genome-wide tool for identifying allelic expression imbalance (AEI),(More)
Several studies suggest that prenatal stress is a possible risk factor in the development of autism spectrum disorders. However, many children exposed to stress prenatally are born healthy and develop typically, suggesting that other factors must contribute to autism. Genes that contribute to stress reactivity may, therefore, exacerbate prenatal(More)
Mammals with foveas (or analogous retinal specializations) frequently shift gaze without moving the head, and their behavior contrasts sharply with "afoveate" mammals, in which eye and head movements are strongly coupled. The ability to move the eyes without moving the head could reflect a gating mechanism that blocks a default eye-head synergy when an(More)
Interactions between presynaptic and postsynaptic cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) drive synapse maturation during development. These trans-synaptic interactions are regulated by alternative splicing of CAM RNAs, which ultimately determines neurotransmitter phenotype. The diverse assortment of RNAs produced by alternative splicing generates countless(More)
Over the past 50,000 years, shifts in human-environmental or human-human interactions shaped genetic differences within and among human populations, including variants under positive selection. Shaped by environmental factors, such variants influence the genetics of modern health, disease, and treatment outcome. Because evolutionary processes tend to act on(More)