Ryan M Kramer

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Many recent studies have emphasized the deleterious role of inflammation in CNS injury. Increases in free fatty acids, eicosanoids, and products of lipid peroxidation are known to occur in various conditions of acute and chronic CNS injury, including cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and Alzheimer's disease. Although an inflammatory response can be(More)
The Ca2+-sensitive 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is responsible for thrombin-stimulated mobilization of arachidonic acid for the synthesis of thromboxane A2 in human platelets. We have previously shown that thrombin activates p38 kinase, a recently discovered new member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family (Kramer, R. M., Roberts, E.(More)
We have purified a human non-pancreatic phospholipase A2 that is present in platelets and is enriched in rheumatoid synovial fluid. The enzyme is calcium-dependent, has a pH optimum of 8-10, and shows a striking preference for substrate presented in the form of Escherichia coli membranes. In the E. coli phospholipase A2 assay the phospholipase exhibits an(More)
Two new cloned human cDNAs encode paralogs of the 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). We propose to call these cPLA2beta (114 kDa) and cPLA2gamma (61 kDa), giving the name cPLA2alpha to the well known 85-kDa enzyme. cPLA2beta mRNA is expressed more highly in cerebellum and pancreas and cPLA2gamma more highly in cardiac and skeletal muscle.(More)
The present study identifies the phosphorylation sites of the 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in human platelets and HeLa cells. Tryptic digests of 32P-phosphorylated and -immunoprecipitated cPLA2 were analyzed by microbore high performance liquid chromatography and two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping against synthetic phosphopeptide standards.(More)
Human platelets pretreated with indomethacin release arachidonic acid predominantly through the activity of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an 85-kDa protein. This enzyme is regulated by an increase in intracellular Ca2+, a necessary condition of for arachidonic acid liberation, and by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cPLA2 enhanced the(More)
Inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity by hyperglycemia could be an important etiological factor of chronic complications in diabetic patients. The biochemical mechanism underlying hyperglycemia's inhibitory effects has been thought to involve the alteration of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway since agonists of PKC can normalize hyperglycemia-induced(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Phospholipid breakdown has been reported to be an early event in the brain after global cerebral ischemia. Our earlier observations showing the localization of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) to astrocytes in aged human brains and the intense glial activation observed after global forebrain ischemia prompted us to investigate the(More)
Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) hydrolyzes the sn-2-acyl ester bond of phospholipids and shows a preference for arachidonic acid-containing substrates. We found previously that Ser-228 is essential for enzyme activity and is likely to function as a nucleophile in the catalytic center of the enzyme (Sharp, J. D., White, D. L., Chiou, X. G., Goodson, T.,(More)
Calcium-sensitive cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is responsible for receptor-mediated liberation of arachidonic acid, and thus plays an important role in the initiation of the inflammatory lipid-mediator cascade generating eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor. In this study we have investigated the cellular distribution of cPLA2 in brain using a(More)