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Considerable effort has recently been directed toward the miniaturization of quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) instrumentation in an effort to reduce both cost and form factor for point-of-care applications. Considerable gains have been made in shrinking the required volumes of PCR reagents, but resultant prototypes retain their bench-top form(More)
Dawson and Foss (1985) have reported that each of five naive budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus ) after watching a demonstrator budgerigar use one of three different methods of opening a covered food dish, used the same method as its respective demonstrator to uncover its own food fish. Our first attempt to replicate Dawson and Foss' experiment was(More)
—A fully-integrated single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) and time-to-digital converter (TDC) array for high-speed fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) in standard 130-nm CMOS is presented. This imager is comprised of an array of 64-by-64 SPADs each with an independent TDC for performing time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) at each(More)
STUDY DESIGN Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of perioperative supplemental ketamine to reduce postoperative opioid analgesic consumption following spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Although low-dose supplemental ketamine has been known to reduce pain after surgery, there is conflicting(More)