Ryan K. Bachtell

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A single exposure to cocaine rapidly induces the brief activation of several immediate early genes, but the role of such short-term regulation in the enduring consequences of cocaine use is poorly understood. We found that 4 h of intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats induced a transient increase in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and(More)
Current cocaine users show little evidence of cognitive impairment and may perform better when using cocaine, yet withdrawal from prolonged cocaine use unmasks dramatic cognitive deficits. It has been suggested that such impairments arise in part through drug-induced dysfunction within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), yet the neurobiological mechanisms(More)
Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in regulating drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors, but the role of D1- and D2-like receptors in this regulation remains unclear. Our objective was to study the role of NAc D1- and D2-like receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior and the regulation of stabilized(More)
The transcription factor DeltaFosB accumulates and persists in brain in response to chronic stimulation. This accumulation after chronic exposure to drugs of abuse has been demonstrated previously by Western blot most dramatically in striatal regions, including dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen) and nucleus accumbens. In the present study, we used(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies found that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) derived from nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons can mediate persistent behavioral changes that contribute to cocaine addiction. METHODS To further investigate BDNF signaling in the mesolimbic dopamine system, we analyzed tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) messenger RNA (mRNA)(More)
Mapping the effects of alcohol consumption on neural activity could provide valuable information on mechanisms of alcohol's effects on behavior. The present study sought to identify effects of alcohol consumption on expression of inducible transcription factors (ITFs) in mouse brain. C57BL/6J mice were trained to consume 10% ethanol/10% sucrose solution(More)
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is the primary source of urocortin in rodent brain. Mapping of inducible transcription factors has shown that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is preferentially sensitive to ethanol self-administration. In the present study we have immunohistochemically compared expression of urocortin and c-Fos in naive and ethanol-treated C57BL/6J(More)
Mapping inducible transcription factors has shown that the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is preferentially sensitive to alcohol intoxication. Herein, we characterize the pharmacological and signal transduction mechanisms related to alcohol-induced c-Fos expression in Edinger-Westphal neurons. Using immunohistochemistry, we show that pretreatment with(More)
Chronic cocaine use reduces glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and is associated with experience-dependent changes in (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor membrane expression in NAc neurons. These changes accompany behavioral sensitization to cocaine and increased susceptibility to cocaine(More)
Expression of inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Fos and FosB was investigated during acquisition of alcohol drinking in C57BL/6J mice. A slight but statistically significant increase in c-Fos expression was found in the Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) of animals consuming 2% ethanol/10% sucrose for the first time. Stronger expression of c-Fos in EW was(More)