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The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) is a large-scale, NIMH funded initiative to understand how brain maturation mediates cognitive development and vulnerability to psychiatric illness, and understand how genetics impacts this process. As part of this study, 1445 adolescents ages 8-21 at enrollment underwent multimodal neuroimaging. Here, we(More)
Adolescence is characterized by rapid development of executive function. Working memory (WM) is a key element of executive function, but it is not known what brain changes during adolescence allow improved WM performance. Using a fractal n-back fMRI paradigm, we investigated brain responses to WM load in 951 human youths aged 8-22 years. Compared with more(More)
Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic(More)
Puberty is the defining biological process of adolescent development, yet its effects on fundamental properties of brain physiology such as cerebral blood flow (CBF) have never been investigated. Capitalizing on a sample of 922 youths ages 8-22 y imaged using arterial spin labeled MRI as part of the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort, we studied(More)
IMPORTANCE The continuum view of the psychosis spectrum (PS) implies that, in population-based samples, PS symptoms should be associated with neural abnormalities similar to those found in help-seeking clinical risk individuals and in schizophrenia. To our knowledge, functional neuroimaging has not previously been applied in large population-based PS(More)
The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC) is a large-scale study of child development that combines neuroimaging, diverse clinical and cognitive phenotypes, and genomics. Data from this rich resource is now publicly available through the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Here we focus on the data from the PNC that is available through(More)
BACKGROUND Dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to play an important role in cognitive function and nicotine dependence. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, an FDA-approved treatment for Parkinson's disease, increases prefrontal dopamine levels, with cognitive benefits that may vary by COMT genotype. We tested(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescence is a critical period for emotional maturation and is a time when clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression increase, particularly in females. However, few studies relate developmental differences in symptoms of anxiety and depression to brain development. Cerebral blood flow is one brain phenotype that is known to have(More)
OBJECTIVE Disruption of executive function is present in many neuropsychiatric disorders. However, determining the specificity of executive dysfunction across these disorders is challenging given high comorbidity of conditions. Here the authors investigate executive system deficits in association with dimensions of psychiatric symptoms in youth using a(More)
BACKGROUND Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is applied in investigation of brain biomarkers for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the quality of DTI measurements, like other neuroimaging techniques, is susceptible to several confounding factors (e.g., motion, eddy currents), which have only recently come under scrutiny. These(More)