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While existing security mechanisms often work well against most known attack types, they are typically incapable of addressing semantic attacks. Such attacks bypass technical protection systems by exploiting the emotional response of the users in unusual technical configurations rather than by focussing on specific technical vulnerabilities. We show that(More)
<i>Social engineering</i> is used as an umbrella term for a broad spectrum of computer exploitations that employ a variety of attack vectors and strategies to psychologically manipulate a user. Semantic attacks are the specific type of social engineering attacks that bypass technical defences by actively manipulating object characteristics, such as platform(More)
While the human as a sensor concept has been utilised extensively for the detection of threats to safety and security in physical space, especially in emergency response and crime reporting, the concept is largely unexplored in the area of cyber security. Here, we evaluate the potential of utilising users as human sensors for the detection of cyber threats,(More)
The Human-as-a-Sensor (HaaS) paradigm, where it is human users rather than automated sensor systems that detect and report events or incidents has gained considerable traction over the last decades, especially as Internet-connected smartphones have helped develop an information sharing culture in society. In the law enforcement and civil protection space,(More)
In a number of information security scenarios, human beings can be better than technical security measures at detecting threats. This is particularly the case when a threat is based on deception of the user rather than exploitation of a specific technical flaw, as is the case of spear-phishing, application spoofing, multimedia masquerading and other(More)
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