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We examined the spatial organization of feedforward postural adjustments produced prior to and during voluntary arm reaching movements executed while standing. We sought to investigate whether the activity of postural muscles before and during reaching was directionally tuned and whether a strategy of horizontal force constraint could be observed. To this(More)
Little is known about the molecular processes that govern female gametophyte (FG) development and function, and few FG-expressed genes have been identified. We report the identification and phenotypic analysis of 31 new FG mutants in Arabidopsis. These mutants have defects throughout development, indicating that FG-expressed genes govern essentially every(More)
The INNER NO OUTER (INO) gene, which encodes a YABBY-type transcription factor, specifies and promotes the growth of the outer integument of the ovule in Arabidopsis. INO expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the developing outer integument of the ovule and is regulated by multiple regions of the INO promoter, including POS9, a positive element(More)
The plant hormone ethylene is important to many plant processes from germination through senescence, including responses to in vitro growth and plant regeneration. Knowledge of the number and function of genes that are involved in ethylene biosynthesis and reception is necessary to determine the role of specific genes within gene families known to influence(More)
The utility of transgenic plants for both experimental and practical agronomic purposes is highly dependent on stable, predictable, and heritable expression of the introduced genes. This requirement is frequently unfulfilled, and transgenes often are completely silenced. Studies of transgenic loci have shown that rearrangements of transgenes occur during(More)
Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting barley cultivars, markers for marker-assisted breeding are(More)
The INNER NO OUTER (INO) gene is expressed in the outermost cell layer of the outer integument of bitegmic ovules and is essential for this organ’s growth. The role and cross-species functional conservation of INO orthologs were examined in members of the Solanaceae, which have unitegmic ovules. Unitegmy has evolved several times in disparate angiosperm(More)
Maize-derived sequences from the transposable elements Activator (Ac) and Dissociation (Ds) have enabled studies of gene function via transposon tagging. The characteristics of modified, transgene-containing Ds elements constructed for some of these studies have demonstrated their ability to resolve complex loci, separate transgenes from marker genes and(More)
Selectable markers used in plant transformation, such as the bar gene, have been chosen for selection efficacy and for the absence of pleiotropic effects. Recent research has suggested that expression of bar in Arabidopsis affects the transcriptome, and in at least one barley cultivar, high bar expression has been associated with severe fitness reductions.(More)
Advances in genomic sequencing technologies in the past decade have revolutionized the field of genomics, resulting in faster and less expensive sequencing. Holding back the potential for innovation, however, is a widespread lack of understanding of genomics and sequencing by the general public. In an attempt to remedy this problem, this paper presents an(More)
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