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We examined the spatial organization of feedforward postural adjustments produced prior to and during voluntary arm reaching movements executed while standing. We sought to investigate whether the activity of postural muscles before and during reaching was directionally tuned and whether a strategy of horizontal force constraint could be observed. To this(More)
Little is known about the molecular processes that govern female gametophyte (FG) development and function, and few FG-expressed genes have been identified. We report the identification and phenotypic analysis of 31 new FG mutants in Arabidopsis. These mutants have defects throughout development, indicating that FG-expressed genes govern essentially every(More)
Confidence in personality impressions is proposed to stem from the richness of people's mental representations of others. Representational richness produces confidence because it enhances the fluency with which people can make judgments, and it increases confidence even when it does not result in more accurate impressions. Results of 3 experiments support(More)
The current study addressed when in the course of stimulus processing, and in what brain areas, activity occurs that supports the interpretation of cues that signal the appropriateness of different and competing behaviors. Twelve subjects completed interleaved no-go-, pro-, and antitrials, whereas 64-channel electroencephalography was recorded. Principle(More)
The results of multiple investigations indicate visual motion-processing abnormalities in schizophrenia. There is little information, however, about the time course and neural correlates of motion-processing abnormalities among these subjects. For the present study, 13 schizophrenia and 13 healthy subjects performed a simple motion direction discrimination(More)
The INNER NO OUTER (INO) gene, which encodes a YABBY-type transcription factor, specifies and promotes the growth of the outer integument of the ovule in Arabidopsis. INO expression is limited to the abaxial cell layer of the developing outer integument of the ovule and is regulated by multiple regions of the INO promoter, including POS9, a positive element(More)
The utility of transgenic plants for both experimental and practical agronomic purposes is highly dependent on stable, predictable, and heritable expression of the introduced genes. This requirement is frequently unfulfilled, and transgenes often are completely silenced. Studies of transgenic loci have shown that rearrangements of transgenes occur during(More)
The plant hormone ethylene is important to many plant processes from germination through senescence, including responses to in vitro growth and plant regeneration. Knowledge of the number and function of genes that are involved in ethylene biosynthesis and reception is necessary to determine the role of specific genes within gene families known to influence(More)
Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting barley cultivars, markers for marker-assisted breeding are(More)
The INNER NO OUTER (INO) gene is expressed in the outermost cell layer of the outer integument of bitegmic ovules and is essential for this organ’s growth. The role and cross-species functional conservation of INO orthologs were examined in members of the Solanaceae, which have unitegmic ovules. Unitegmy has evolved several times in disparate angiosperm(More)