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We describe the comprehensive characterization of homeodomain DNA-binding specificities from a metazoan genome. The analysis of all 84 independent homeodomains from D. melanogaster reveals the breadth of DNA sequences that can be specified by this recognition motif. The majority of these factors can be organized into 11 different specificity groups, where(More)
Cetaceans have most likely experienced metabolic shifts since evolutionarily diverging from their terrestrial ancestors, shifts that may be reflected in the proteins such as cytochrome b that are responsible for metabolic efficiency. However, accepted statistical methods for detecting molecular adaptation are largely biased against even moderately(More)
MOTIVATION Recognition models for protein-DNA interactions, which allow the prediction of specificity for a DNA-binding domain based only on its sequence or the alteration of specificity through rational design, have long been a goal of computational biology. There has been some progress in constructing useful models, especially for C(2)H(2) zinc finger(More)
FlyFactorSurvey (http://pgfe.umassmed.edu/TFDBS/) is a database of DNA binding specificities for Drosophila transcription factors (TFs) primarily determined using the bacterial one-hybrid system. The database provides community access to over 400 recognition motifs and position weight matrices for over 200 TFs, including many unpublished motifs. Search(More)
The widespread use of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) for genome engineering is hampered by the fact that only a subset of sequences can be efficiently recognized using published finger archives. We describe a set of validated two-finger modules that complement existing finger archives and expand the range of ZFN-accessible sequences threefold. Using this(More)
Cys(2)-His(2) zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are the largest family of transcription factors in higher metazoans. They also represent the most diverse family with regards to the composition of their recognition sequences. Although there are a number of ZFPs with characterized DNA-binding preferences, the specificity of the vast majority of ZFPs is unknown and(More)
Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) have been used for genome engineering in a wide variety of organisms; however, it remains challenging to design effective ZFNs for many genomic sequences using publicly available zinc-finger modules. This limitation is in part because of potential finger-finger incompatibility generated on assembly of modules into zinc-finger(More)
The codon-degeneracy model (CDM) predicts that patterns of nucleotide substitution in protein-coding genes are largely determined by the relative frequencies of four-fold (4f), two-fold, and non-degenerate sites, the attributes of which are determined by the structure of the governing genetic code. The CDM thus further predicts that genetic codes with(More)
Seventy-two full genomes corresponding to nine mammalian (67 strains) and two avian (5 strains) polyomavirus species were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods of phylogenetic inference. Our fully resolved and well-supported (bootstrap proportions > 90%; posterior probabilities = 1.0) trees separate the bird polyomaviruses (avian(More)