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Insulin signaling in osteoblasts regulates global energy balance by stimulating the production of osteocalcin, a bone-derived protein that promotes insulin production and action. To identify the signaling pathways in osteoblasts that mediate insulin's effects on bone and energy metabolism, we examined the function of the tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) protein,(More)
Although angiogenesis and osteogenesis are critically linked, the importance of angiogenesis for stress fracture healing is unknown. In this study, mechanical loading was used to create a non-displaced stress fracture in the adult rat forelimb. Fumagillin, an anti-angiogenic agent, was used as the water soluble analogue TNP-470 (25mg/kg) as well as(More)
Alterations in resorption cavities and bone remodeling events during anti-resorptive treatment are believed to contribute to reductions in fracture risk. Here, we examine changes in the size of individual remodeling events associated with treatment with a selective estrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene) or a bisphosphonate (risedronate). Adult female rats(More)
Cavities formed by osteoclasts on the surface of cancellous bone during bone remodeling (resorption cavities) are believed to act as stress risers and impair cancellous bone strength and stiffness. Although resorption cavities are readily detected as eroded surfaces in histology sections, identification of resorption cavities in three-dimensional images of(More)
Serial block face imaging is a microscopy technique in which the top of a specimen is cut or ground away and a mosaic of images is collected of the newly revealed cross-section. Images collected from each slice are then digitally stacked to achieve 3D images. The development of fully automated image acquisition devices has made serial block face imaging(More)
Bone is a highly vascularized tissue, although this aspect of bone is often overlooked. In this article, the importance of blood flow in bone repair and regeneration will be reviewed. First, the skeletal vascular anatomy, with an emphasis on long bones, the distinct mechanisms for vascularizing bone tissue, and methods for remodeling existing vasculature(More)
Despite the strong connection between angiogenesis and osteogenesis in skeletal repair conditions such as fracture and distraction osteogenesis, little is known about the vascular requirements for bone formation after repetitive mechanical loading. Here, established protocols of damaging (stress fracture) and nondamaging (physiological) forelimb loading in(More)
Angiogenesis and osteogenesis are critically linked, although the role of angiogenesis is not well understood in osteogenic mechanical loading. In this study, either damaging or non-damaging cyclic axial compression was used to generate woven bone formation (WBF) or lamellar bone formation (LBF), respectively, at the mid-diaphysis of the adult rat forelimb.(More)
PURPOSE Blood flow is an important factor in bone production and repair, but its role in osteogenesis induced by mechanical loading is unknown. Here, we present techniques for evaluating blood flow and fluoride metabolism in a pre-clinical stress fracture model of osteogenesis in rats. PROCEDURES Bone formation was induced by forelimb compression in adult(More)
Sensory nerves emanating from the dorsal root extensively innervate the surfaces of mammalian bone, a privileged location for the regulation of biomechanical signaling. Here, we show that NGF-TrkA signaling in skeletal sensory nerves is an early response to mechanical loading of bone and is required to achieve maximal load-induced bone formation. First, the(More)