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Inflammatory processes contribute to neurodegenerative disease, stroke, encephalitis, and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Activated microglia are a source of cytokines and other inflammatory agents within the CNS and it is therefore important to control glial function in order to preserve neural cells. Melanocortin peptides are(More)
The mechanisms by which Ebola virus evades detection and infects cells to cause hemorrhagic fever have not been defined, though its glycoprotein, synthesized in either a secreted or transmembrane form, is likely involved. Here the secreted glycoprotein was found to interact with neutrophils through CD16b, the neutrophil-specific form of the Fc gamma(More)
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is an ancient tridecapeptide with potent inhibitory activity in all major forms of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory message sequence of alpha-MSH resides in the COOH-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH[11-13]. We tested the influence of alpha-MSH[1-13] and of alpha-MSH[11-13] in a cultured murine microglia cell(More)
The ability to produce nitric oxide (NO) of human monocytes macrophages is object of debate. While studying the regulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) synthesis induced by endotoxin (LPS) in a human cell line of monocyte origin (THP-1) and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) we found an indirect evidence of such production. We showed that(More)
BACKGROUND In response to infection, neutrophils are quickly recruited from the blood into inflamed tissues. The interstitial migration of neutrophils is crucial for the efficient capture and control of rapidly proliferating microbes before microbial growth can overwhelm the host's defenses. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate interstitial(More)
Until recently, inflammation was believed to arise from events taking place exclusively in the periphery. However, it is now clear that central neurogenic influences can either enhance or modulate peripheral inflammation. Therefore, it should be possible to improve treatment of inflammation by use of antiinflammatory agents that reduce peripheral host(More)
Vertical transmission of HIV-1 can occur at three different stages: during gestation, delivery and breast feeding. To determine the role of cytokines in vertical transmission of HIV during gestation, we studied the secretion of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and IL-6 from in vitro infected and Mock-infected placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells) in comparison to blood(More)
Transient transfection of 293T cells was utilized to produce high-titer murine recombinant retroviral vectors for clinical studies. This system was initially optimized by gene transfer using different retroviral envelope proteins into activated human CD4+ T lymphocytes in vitro. Higher titer and infectivity were obtained than with stable murine producer(More)
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-chemokine secretion on HIV infection of placental macrophages (HF) as compared to monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). For this purpose, we measured chemokine production in supematants of LPS stimulated and unstimulated HF and MDM. LPS stimulated cultures produced 3 to 10 times higher levels of(More)
We studied the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary edema. LPS treatment (600 micrograms/mouse, IP) was associated with a marked induction of the superoxide-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) in serum and lung. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC)--1 gm/kg orally, 45 minutes(More)