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Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF) is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine with known vascular permeabilising activity. It is employed during isolated limb perfusion to enhance delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs into tumour tissue. The use of conditionally-replicating lytic viruses, so called 'oncolytic virotherapy', provides a new approach to cancer(More)
The efficacy of vaccine adjuvants such as Toll-like receptor agonists (TLRa) can be improved through formulation and delivery approaches. Here, we attached small molecule TLR-7/8a to polymer scaffolds (polymer–TLR-7/8a) and evaluated how different physicochemical properties of the TLR-7/8a and polymer carrier influenced the location, magnitude and duration(More)
The endothelium imposes a structural barrier to the extravasation of systemically delivered oncolytic adenovirus (Ad). Here, we introduced a transendothelial route of delivery in order to increase tumor accumulation of virus particles (vp) beyond that resulting from convection-dependent extravasation alone. This was achieved by engineering an Ad encoding a(More)
Replicating viruses have broad applications in biomedicine, notably in cancer virotherapy and in the design of attenuated vaccines; however, uncontrolled virus replication in vulnerable tissues can give pathology and often restricts the use of potent strains. Increased knowledge of tissue-selective microRNA expression now affords the possibility of(More)
Wild-type Sindbis virus (SV) shows promise as an oncolytic agent, although potential off-target replication is a safety concern. To remove possible pathology reflecting virus replication in liver, muscle, and/or hematopoietic cells, microRNA (miR)-response elements (MREs) to liver-specific miR122, muscle-specific miR133a and miR206, or(More)
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate mRNA translation and stability by binding to complementary sequences usually within the 3' un-translated region (UTR). We have previously shown that the hepatic toxicity caused by wild-type Adenovirus 5 (Ad5WT) in mice can be prevented by incorporating 4 binding sites for the liver-specific(More)
The need for CD4+ T cell responses to arise de novo following vaccination can limit the speed of B cell responses. Populations of pre-existing vaccine-induced or anti-viral CD4+ T cells recognising distinct antigens could be exploited to overcome this limitation. We hypothesise that liposomal vaccine particles encapsulating epitopes that are recognised,(More)