Ryan B. Norman

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[1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The(More)
Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven(More)
An interesting accident of nature is that the peak of the cosmic ray spectrum, for both protons and heavier nuclei, occurs near the pion production threshold. The Boltzmann transport equation contains a term which is the cosmic ray flux multiplied by the cross section. Therefore when considering pion and kaon production from proton-proton reactions, small(More)
A safe and eÆcient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation is modi ed in both quality and quantity. Many of these modi cations are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the(More)
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