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Intestinal Peyer's patch (PP) regulatory CD21+ B cells (B(regs)) suppress TLR9-induced innate immune responses. However, it is not known whether TLR9 activation is regulated in PP B(regs). Here, we investigated the responses of PP B(regs) to stimulation with the TLR9 agonist CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). We observed that PP CD21+ B(regs) express high(More)
Cytokines IL-32 and IL-17 are emerging as critical players in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. It has been speculated that the molecular mechanisms governing IL-32- and IL-17-mediated cellular responses are differentially dependent on the TNF pathway. In this study, kinome analysis demonstrated that following stimulation(More)
Phosphorylation is the predominant mechanism of post-translational modification for regulation of protein function. With central roles in virtually every cellular process, and strong linkages with many diseases, there is a considerable interest in defining, and ultimately controlling, kinase activities. Investigations of human cellular phosphorylation(More)
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle and may have implications for human health. Establishment of chronic infection by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis depends on its subversion of host immune responses. This includes blocking the ability of infected macrophages to be activated by gamma interferon(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) infection of chickens that are more than a few days old results in asymptomatic cecal colonization with persistent shedding of bacteria. We hypothesized that while the bacterium colonizes and persists locally in the cecum it has systemic effects, including changes to metabolic pathways of(More)
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle. The complex, multifaceted interaction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis with its host includes dampening the ability of infected cells to respond to stimuli that promote M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis clearance. By disrupting host defenses, M. avium subsp.(More)
Tools for conducting high-throughput kinome analysis do not exist for many species. For example, two commonly used techniques for monitoring phosphorylation events are phosphorylation-specific antibodies and peptide arrays. The majority of phosphorylation-specific antibodies are for human or mouse targets, and the construction of peptide arrays relies on(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind to components of microbes, activate cellular signal transduction pathways and stimulate innate immune responses. Previously, we have shown in chicken monocytes that the combination of CpG, the ligand for TLR21 (the chicken equivalent of TLR9), and poly I:C, the ligand for TLR3, results in a synergistic immune response. In(More)
Treatment of hematopoietic malignancies often requires allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and the subsequent graft-versus-leukemia response is crucial for the elimination of malignant cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells responsible for the immunoelimination express Fas ligand and strongly rely on the induction of Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis(More)
The central roles of kinases in cellular processes and diseases make them highly attractive as indicators of biological responses and as therapeutic targets. Peptide arrays are emerging as an important means of characterizing kinome activity. Currently, the computational tools used to perform high-throughput kinome analyses are not specifically tailored to(More)