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In mice, there is evidence suggesting that the development of head and trunk structures is organized by distinctly separated cell populations. The head organizer is located in the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) and the trunk organizer in the node and anterior primitive streak. In amphibians, Spemann's organizer, which is homologous to the node, partially(More)
In this study we investigate the roles of the organizer factors chordin and noggin, which are dedicated antagonists of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), in formation of the mammalian head. The mouse chordin and noggin genes (Chrd and Nog) are expressed in the organizer (the node) and its mesendodermal derivatives, including the prechordal plate, an(More)
The design of role-playing games (RPGs) is very complex, involving an intricate interweaving of narrative, quest design, and level design. As an important means for conveying the game's story, quests dictate the setting and contents of levels. Levels provide challenges for the player to overcome in the service of completing quests, and their structure can(More)
Recent studies indicate that mammals, including humans, maintain some capacity to renew cardiomyocytes throughout postnatal life. Yet, there is little or no significant cardiac muscle regeneration after an injury such as acute myocardial infarction. By contrast, zebrafish efficiently regenerate lost cardiac muscle, providing a model for understanding how(More)
We present a novel approach to detecting multiscale keypoints using the dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT). We show that it is a well-suited basis for this problem as it is directionally selective, smoothly shift invariant, optimally decimated at coarse scales and invertible (no loss of information). Our detection scheme is fast because of the(More)
In this paper, we introduce a new multiscale representation for 2-D images named the Inter-Coefficient Product (ICP). The ICP is a decimated pyramid of complex values based on the Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT). The complex phases of its coefficients correspond to the angles of dominant directional features in their support regions. As a(More)
The pancreas, in most studied vertebrates, is a compound organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions. The exocrine compartment makes and secretes digestive enzymes, while the endocrine compartment, organized into islets of Langerhans, produces hormones that regulate blood glucose. High concentrations of polyamines, which are aliphatic amines, are(More)
Here we investigate the roles of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonists Chordin and Noggin in development of the mandible, which is derived from the first branchial arch (BA1). Both genes are expressed in the pharynx during early mandibular outgrowth and later in the mandibular process. Mice mutant for either Nog or Chd have only mild mandibular(More)
This paper introduces the interlevel product (ILP) which is a transform based upon the dual-tree complex wavelet. Coefficients of the ILP have complex values whose magnitudes indicate the amplitude of multilevel features, and whose phases indicate the nature of these features (e.g. ridges vs. edges). In particular, the phases of ILP coefficients are(More)
Oculocerebral renal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL or Lowe syndrome), a severe X-linked congenital disorder characterized by congenital cataracts and glaucoma, mental retardation and kidney dysfunction, is caused by mutations in the OCRL gene. OCRL is a phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase that interacts with small GTPases and is involved in intracellular trafficking.(More)