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Proximal-distal outgrowth of the vertebrate limb bud is regulated by the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which forms at an invariant position along the dorsal-ventral (D/V) axis of the embryo. We have studied the genetic and cellular events that regulate AER formation in the mouse. In contrast to implications from previous studies in chick, we identified two(More)
The apical ectodermal ridge (AER), a rim of thickened ectodermal cells at the interface between the dorsal and ventral domains of the limb bud, is required for limb outgrowth and patterning. We have previously shown that the limbs of En1 mutant mice display dorsal-ventral and proximal-distal abnormalities, the latter being reflected in the appearance of a(More)
Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to(More)
OBJECTIVE In this study, we compared how users locate physical and equivalent three-dimensional images of virtual objects in a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE) using the hand to examine how human performance (accuracy, time, and approach) is affected by object size, location, and distance. BACKGROUND Virtual reality (VR) offers the promise to(More)
19 Objective: This study compared how users locate physical and equivalent three-dimensional images of 20 virtual objects in a CAVE using the hand to examine how human performance (accuracy, time, and 21 approach) is affected by object size, location, and distance. 22 Background: Virtual reality (VR) offers the promise to flexibly simulate arbitrary(More)
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