Ruud W. Busker

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 The increased international concern about the threat of military and terroristic use of nerve agents, prompted us to critically consider the expected value of the currently available oxime treatment of nerve agent poisoning. Although oximes have been designed to reactivate the inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE), clinical experience has indicated that(More)
The irreversible binding of chlorpromazine radical cation (CPZ+.) and photoactivated chlorpromazine (CPZ) to calf thymus DNA in vitro and bacterial macromolecules in intact bacterium cells was investigated. CPZ+. may be formed in vivo metabolically and photochemically. CPZ+. and photo-activated CPZ bind covalently to double- and single-strand DNA. The(More)
To prevent incapacitation following nerve agent intoxications, it is proposed to replace pyridostigmine by the centrally active carbamate physostigmine (PHY). Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of PHY were determined and whether these effects would be counteracted by scopolamine. In addition, we compared them with the effects of another reversible(More)
A method was developed to study exclusively those therapeutic effects of oximes that are not related to reactivation of organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The model uses the organophosphorus compound crotylsarin (CRS), which proved to be a potent, irreversible, peripherally and centrally active AChE inhibitor with a very short biological(More)
The oximes HI-6, HLö-7, HGG-12, HGG-42 and obidoxime were used in a previously developed rat model to evaluate the therapeutic effects of oximes other than acetylcholinesterase (AChE) reactivation (so-called “nonreactivating effects”). To test this, anaesthetized, atropinized and artificially ventilated rats (n=8 or 16) were poisoned with a three times LD50(More)
Isolated rat diaphragm preparations treated with soman or with the irreversible and oxime resistant cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor S27 (see Compounds) showed a considerable recovery of neuromuscular transmission (NMT) during incubation with the (bis)pyridinium oximes HI-6, HGG-12, P2S and obidoxime. In the soman-treated preparations this NMT recovery was(More)
The efficacy and possible health risks of pepper spray were evaluated. In a number of countries, pepper spray is being used by police forces to aid in arresting aggressive individuals. Pepper spray is commercially available as a canister filled with Capsicum extract, which contains capsaicin as the active component. When applied in the form of a spray, it(More)
To investigate at which dose levels undesirable effects started, behavioural performance and several physiological parameters were measured in marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) after soman (1.75 and 3.5 micrograms/kg), sarin (3 and 6 micrograms/kg), physostigmine (10 and 20 micrograms/kg), and pyridostigmine (200 and 400 micrograms/kg). Effects on performance(More)
The behavioral and neurophysiological effects of the subchronically administered cholinesterase-inhibitor physostigmine (PHY) (0.025 mg/kg/h) either with or without the muscarinergic antagonist scopolamine (SCO) (0.018 mg/kg/h) were determined in guinea pigs. In contrast to a single injection of PHY, subchronic application by osmotic minipumps of PHY, even(More)
Effects of the oxime HI-6, unrelated to reactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), on field potentials in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampus following AChE inhibition, were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. In hippocampal slices, AChE inhibition decreased the perforant path evoked population spike amplitude (PSA). This effect could be(More)