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At present, regulatory assessment of systemic toxicity is almost solely carried out using animal models. The European Commission's REACH legislation stimulates the use of animal-free approaches to(More)
In vitro assays are often used for the hazard characterisation of compounds, but their application for quantitative risk assessment purposes is limited. This is because in vitro assays cannot provide(More)
The OECD study design, aimed at obtaining a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), may be suboptimal for deriving a benchmark dose. Therefore the present subacute (28-day) study was carried out to(More)