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OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations in the community and HIV incidence among injecting drug users. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Inner city community in Vancouver, Canada. PARTICIPANTS Injecting drug users, with and without HIV, followed up every six months between 1 May 1996 and 30 June 2007. MAIN(More)
BACKGROUND In recent years, there has been increased interest in supervised safer injecting facilities (SIF) as a strategy to reduce the harms of illicit drug use; however, little work has been done to assess drug users' satisfaction with this service. This study was undertaken to explore injection drug users' experiences and opinions regarding North(More)
BACKGROUND There has emerged growing recognition of the link between housing and health. Since Vancouver, Canada has had increasing concerns with homelessness brought about by urban renewal in the lead-up to the 2010 Winter Olympic Games, we evaluated hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence among injection drug users (IDU) with and without stable housing. (More)
BACKGROUND North America's first medically supervised safer injection facility (SIF) for illicit drug users was opened in Vancouver, Canada on 22 September 2003. We examined the prevalence and correlates of hepatitis C (HCV) infection among a representative cohort of SIF users. METHODS Users of the Vancouver SIF were selected at random and asked to enrol(More)
Homelessness is prevalent among HIV-infected injection drug users (IDU) and may adversely affect access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There are limited descriptions of the effect of homelessness on adherence to ART in long-term cohorts of HIV-infected IDU. We used data from a community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-infected IDU,(More)
OBJECTIVES Exchanging sex for money, drugs, or other commodities for survival is associated with an array of HIV risks. We sought to determine if street-involved drug-using sexual minority youth are at greater risk for survival sex work and are more likely to engage in risk behaviors with clients. METHODS We examined factors associated with survival sex(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite emerging evidence of a significant adverse relationship between food insecurity and sexual risk-taking, data have been primarily derived from resource-constrained settings and HIV-negative populations. To our knowledge, this study is the first to longitudinally evaluate the relationship between food insecurity and unprotected sex among(More)
Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the prevalence and correlates of homelessness among youth enrolled in a community-recruited prospective cohort known as the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), between September 2005 and October 2006. Of 478 individuals included in this analysis, 132 (27.6%) were female and 120 (25.1%) self-identified as(More)
PURPOSE Because of growing concerns regarding the heightened vulnerabilities and risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection among youth who exchange sex for survival, we investigated individual risk patterns and structural barriers among young (≤24 years) female sex workers (FSWs) in Vancouver, Canada. METHODS Between 2005 and 2008, a total of 255(More)