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We report that, in the rat hippocampus, learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation(More)
Early-onset dystonia is an autosomal dominant movement disorder associated with deletion of a glutamic acid residue in torsinA. We generated four independent lines of transgenic mice by overexpressing human DeltaE-torsinA using a neuron specific enolase promoter. The transgenic mice developed abnormal involuntary movements with dystonic-appearing,(More)
This study aimed to elucidate the genetic causes underlying early-onset Parkinsonism (EOP) in a consanguineous Iranian family. To attain this, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed. As a result, a homozygous mutation (c.773G>A; p.Arg258Gln) lying within the NH2 -terminal Sac1-like inositol phosphatase domain of polyphosphoinositide(More)
McLeod syndrome is caused by mutations of XK, an X-chromosomal gene of unknown function. Originally defined as a peculiar Kell blood group variant, the disease affects multiple organs, including the nervous system, but is certainly underdiagnosed. We analyzed the mutations and clinical findings of 22 affected men, aged 27 to 72 years. Fifteen different XK(More)
As many as 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) use some form of complementary medicine during the course of their illness, and many try acupuncture. One nonblinded study of the effects of acupuncture in PD suggested that it might be helpful for some aspects of PD. We performed a double-blind, randomized, pilot study comparing acupuncture to a(More)
OBJECTIVE To gain an understanding of current attitudes among oncologists and pathologists to prospective HER2 testing in breast cancer and to gauge whether a national consensus exists regarding extent and quality of testing. DESIGN Qualitative study, with semi-quantitative components, using emailed questionnaires and open-ended discussion documents. (More)
OBJECTIVE Understanding the social-cultural aspects of epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa will help to improve the situation of people with epilepsy (PWE) in this region. METHODS This qualitative study comprised interviews with 41 PWE and their carers. Participants were identified from a large community-based epidemiological study of epilepsy conducted in(More)
Levodopa is the "gold standard" for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a theoretical concern, however, that levodopa might accelerate the rate of nigral degeneration, because it undergoes oxidative metabolism and is toxic to cultured dopaminergic neurons. Most in vivo studies do not show evidence of levodopa toxicity; levodopa(More)
Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental disorder, in which both genetic and environmental factors have a role in the development of the disease. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is one of the most established genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and disruption of NRG1 signaling has been reported in this disorder. We reported previously that NRG1/ErbB4 signaling(More)
The term "neuroacanthocytosis" is normally used to refer to autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome, but there are other movement disorders in which erythrocyte acanthocytosis may also be seen, such as Huntington disease-like 2 and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Disorders of serum lipoproteins such as(More)