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We report that, in the rat hippocampus, learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation(More)
Early-onset dystonia is an autosomal dominant movement disorder associated with deletion of a glutamic acid residue in torsinA. We generated four independent lines of transgenic mice by overexpressing human DeltaE-torsinA using a neuron specific enolase promoter. The transgenic mice developed abnormal involuntary movements with dystonic-appearing,(More)
Dystonia is a disease of basal ganglia function, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Primary torsion dystonia is one of the most severe types of inherited dystonia and can be transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently, one mutation causing this disorder was localized to a gene on chromosome 9q34, designated DYT1, which encodes for(More)
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common multisystem autoimmune disorder. As with other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), SS has been associated with a wide range of neurologic abnormalities. Parkinsonism has been reported previously in five SS patients. We present three additional cases of SS with parkinsonism.
Schizophrenia is a serious and chronic mental disorder, in which both genetic and environmental factors have a role in the development of the disease. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is one of the most established genetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and disruption of NRG1 signaling has been reported in this disorder. We reported previously that NRG1/ErbB4 signaling(More)
We describe one male and one female patient who each developed childhood/adolescent obsessive-compulsive disorder as a prelude to the development of a typical picture of chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc). In each patient, the caudate nucleus showed dramatic atrophy. The role of the caudate in compulsive phenomena, and the predilection for neurological disorders(More)
There have been significant advances in neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes in the past 20 years, however, confusion still exists regarding the precise nature of these disorders and the correct nomenclature. This article seeks to clarify these issues and to summarise the recent literature in the field. The four key NA syndromes are described(More)
Although it has been 20 years since Rh immunoglobulin (Rhlg) was widely introduced in the United States, anti-D still remains as a frequent alloantibody found in hospital patients. Currently, anti-D is second in frequency only to anti-K as an alloantibody of clinical significance. Estimation of alloantibody frequencies in hospital patients reveals a gradual(More)
This study aimed to elucidate the genetic causes underlying early-onset Parkinsonism (EOP) in a consanguineous Iranian family. To attain this, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed. As a result, a homozygous mutation (c.773G>A; p.Arg258Gln) lying within the NH2 -terminal Sac1-like inositol phosphatase domain of polyphosphoinositide(More)
McLeod syndrome is caused by mutations of XK, an X-chromosomal gene of unknown function. Originally defined as a peculiar Kell blood group variant, the disease affects multiple organs, including the nervous system, but is certainly underdiagnosed. We analyzed the mutations and clinical findings of 22 affected men, aged 27 to 72 years. Fifteen different XK(More)