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We report that, in the rat hippocampus, learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation(More)
This study aimed to elucidate the genetic causes underlying early-onset Parkinsonism (EOP) in a consanguineous Iranian family. To attain this, homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were performed. As a result, a homozygous mutation (c.773G>A; p.Arg258Gln) lying within the NH2 -terminal Sac1-like inositol phosphatase domain of polyphosphoinositide(More)
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a common multisystem autoimmune disorder. As with other autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), SS has been associated with a wide range of neurologic abnormalities. Parkinsonism has been reported previously in five SS patients. We present three additional cases of SS with parkinsonism.
Early-onset dystonia is an autosomal dominant movement disorder associated with deletion of a glutamic acid residue in torsinA. We generated four independent lines of transgenic mice by overexpressing human DeltaE-torsinA using a neuron specific enolase promoter. The transgenic mice developed abnormal involuntary movements with dystonic-appearing,(More)
Neurological abnormalities associated with spiculated, "acanthocytic" red cells in blood have been summarized as neuroacanthocytosis. This is a heterogeneous group of conditions that can now be clearly subdivided on the basis of genetic discoveries. The core neuroacanthocytosis syndromes are autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc) and the X-linked(More)
The term "neuroacanthocytosis" is normally used to refer to autosomal recessive chorea-acanthocytosis and X-linked McLeod syndrome, but there are other movement disorders in which erythrocyte acanthocytosis may also be seen, such as Huntington disease-like 2 and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Disorders of serum lipoproteins such as(More)
Levodopa is the "gold standard" for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a theoretical concern, however, that levodopa might accelerate the rate of nigral degeneration, because it undergoes oxidative metabolism and is toxic to cultured dopaminergic neurons. Most in vivo studies do not show evidence of levodopa toxicity; levodopa(More)
Huntington's Disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a progressive, autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder with marked clinical and pathological similarities to Huntington's disease (HD). The causal mutation is a CTG/CAG expansion mutation on chromosome 16q24.3, in a variably spliced exon of junctophilin-3. The frequency of HDL2 was determined in nine independent(More)
Childhood-onset dystonia is an autosomal dominant movement disorder associated with a three base pair (GAG) deletion mutation in the DYT1 gene. This gene encodes a novel ATP-binding protein called torsinA, which in the central nervous system is expressed exclusively in neurons. Neither the function of torsinA nor its role in the pathophysiology of DYT1(More)