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We report that, in the rat hippocampus, learning leads to a significant increase in extracellular lactate levels that derive from glycogen, an energy reserve selectively localized in astrocytes. Astrocytic glycogen breakdown and lactate release are essential for long-term but not short-term memory formation, and for the maintenance of long-term potentiation(More)
Early-onset dystonia is an autosomal dominant movement disorder associated with deletion of a glutamic acid residue in torsinA. We generated four independent lines of transgenic mice by overexpressing human DeltaE-torsinA using a neuron specific enolase promoter. The transgenic mice developed abnormal involuntary movements with dystonic-appearing,(More)
Dystonia is a disease of basal ganglia function, the pathophysiology of which is poorly understood. Primary torsion dystonia is one of the most severe types of inherited dystonia and can be transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner. Recently, one mutation causing this disorder was localized to a gene on chromosome 9q34, designated DYT1, which encodes for(More)
There have been significant advances in neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes in the past 20 years, however, confusion still exists regarding the precise nature of these disorders and the correct nomenclature. This article seeks to clarify these issues and to summarise the recent literature in the field. The four key NA syndromes are described(More)
McLeod syndrome is caused by mutations of XK, an X-chromosomal gene of unknown function. Originally defined as a peculiar Kell blood group variant, the disease affects multiple organs, including the nervous system, but is certainly underdiagnosed. We analyzed the mutations and clinical findings of 22 affected men, aged 27 to 72 years. Fifteen different XK(More)
Huntington's Disease-like 2 (HDL2) is a progressive, autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder with marked clinical and pathological similarities to Huntington's disease (HD). The causal mutation is a CTG/CAG expansion mutation on chromosome 16q24.3, in a variably spliced exon of junctophilin-3. The frequency of HDL2 was determined in nine independent(More)
Levodopa is the "gold standard" for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). There is a theoretical concern, however, that levodopa might accelerate the rate of nigral degeneration, because it undergoes oxidative metabolism and is toxic to cultured dopaminergic neurons. Most in vivo studies do not show evidence of levodopa toxicity; levodopa(More)
Huntington's disease-like 2 is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder due to an expansion of trinucleotide repeats. It resembles classic Huntington's disease in clinical phenotype, inheritance pattern, and neuropathological features. We highlight the clinical features of this disorder, including chorea, dystonia, parkinsonism, and cognitive deficits.
BACKGROUND The term chorea-acanthocytosis describes a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with variable clinical features and modes of inheritance. The characteristic acanthocytic appearance of red blood cells is attributed to abnormalities of a membrane protein, band 3, although the relationship between this and the neurodegenerative process(More)
Neuroacanthocytosis (NA) syndromes are a group of genetically defined diseases characterized by the association of red blood cell acanthocytosis and progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia. NA syndromes are exceptionally rare with an estimated prevalence of less than 1 to 5 per 1'000'000 inhabitants for each disorder. The core NA syndromes include(More)