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BRAF is a serine-threonine-specific protein kinase that is mutated in 2% of human cancers. Oncogenic BRAF is a validated therapeutic target that constitutively activates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, driving tumor cell proliferation and survival. Drugs designed to target BRAF have been(More)
Mutated BRAF serine/threonine kinase is implicated in several types of cancer, with particularly high frequency in melanoma and colorectal carcinoma. We recently reported on the development of BRAF inhibitors based on a tripartite A-B-C system featuring an imidazo[4,5]pyridin-2-one group hinge binder. Here we present the design, synthesis, and optimization(More)
BRAF is a serine/threonine kinase that is mutated in a range of cancers, including 50-70% of melanomas, and has been validated as a therapeutic target. We have designed and synthesized mutant BRAF inhibitors containing pyridoimidazolone as a new hinge-binding scaffold. Compounds have been obtained which have low nanomolar potency for mutant BRAF (12 nM for(More)
We recently reported on the development of a novel series of BRAF inhibitors based on a tripartite A-B-C system characterized by a para-substituted central aromatic core connected to an imidazo[4,5]pyridin-2-one scaffold and a substituted urea linker. Here, we present a new series of BRAF inhibitors in which the central phenyl ring connects to the hinge(More)
Radix spp. are intermediate host snails for digenean parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Within this genus, species differentiation using shell and internal organ morphology can result in erroneous species identification, causing problems when trying to understand the population biology of Radix. In the present study, DNA barcoding, using cox1(More)
The distribution of host range of Sanguinicola armata, S. inermis and S. volgensis in British freshwater fish are described. S. inermis has been recorded in carp Cyprinus carpio, crucian carp Carassius carassius and tench Tinca tinca in southern, central and eastern England and in koi carp imported from Japan. S. armata has been detected in pike Esox lucius(More)
In a survey of 7,044 necropsies there were 99 cases of aneurysm of the abdominal aorta and 523 cases of peptic ulceration. The incidence of peptic ulceration in the general necropsy population was 7.2% whilst in cases with aneurysm it was 22.6%. There was a significant increase in duodenal ulceration in males with abdominal aortic aneurysms. The possible(More)
Schistosoma mansoni uses Biomphalaria glabrata as an intermediate host during its complex life cycle. In the snail, the parasite initially transforms from a miracidium into a mother sporocyst and during this process excretory-secretory products (ESPs) are released. Nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence(More)
The study aims were to quantify the survivorship of Anguillicola crassus in eels in seawater and investigate transmission in estuarine (50% seawater) and marine (100% seawater) simulated conditions. Most A. crassus were able to survive and reproduce in 50% and 100% seawater eels for up to 6 months and therefore could survive during the spawning migration of(More)