Ruth O. Levine

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In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected(More)
Over the past several decades, obesity has grown into a major global epidemic. In the United States (US), more than two-thirds of adults are now overweight and one-third is obese. In this article, we provide an overview of the state of research on the likely economic impact of the US obesity epidemic at the national level. Research to date has identified at(More)
A large body of scholarship finds that there is a relationship between economic dependence on oil or minerals and authoritarianism. This finding is based, however, on pooled, time-series crosssectional regressions without country fixed effects run on datasets that are longitudinally truncated. This is not an effective strategy to uncover causal(More)
Too often, the word ‘openness’ has been used to embrace the entire scope of policies and outcomes that characterise a healthy economy. But this makes ‘openness’ unachievable from a policy point of view. Here, I use the word to refer narrowly to an open policy stance, the opposite of protectionism. Defined this way, ‘openness’ does not, unfortunately,(More)
The G8 is considering committing to purchase vaccines against diseases concentrated in low-income countries (if and when desirable vaccines are developed) as a way to spur research and development on vaccines for these diseases. Under such an 'advance market commitment,' one or more sponsors would commit to a minimum price to be paid per person immunized(More)
The synergistic relationship between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be substantial in developing countries that have high prevalences of both viral infections. Genital herpes, most frequently caused by HSV-2, has become the leading cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. This review of recent(More)
Self-testing has the potential to be an innovative component to community-wide HIV-prevention strategies. This testing method could serve populations who do not have access to standard voluntary counselling and testing services or because of privacy concerns, stigma, transport costs, or other barriers do not use facility-based, standard HIV testing. This(More)
Donors, developing country governments, and NGOs are searching for ways to use funding for HIV/AIDS programs that strengthen the functioning of weak health systems. This is motivated both by the realization that a large share of donor funding for global health is and will continue to be dedicated to HIV/AIDS, and that the aims of more and better treatment,(More)
For the last decade, the World Bank has been trying to find its footing on shifting ground in global health. In the mid1990s, it saw the blush fade on many health financing and organizational reforms that it actively promoted in middleincome countries in Latin America and elsewhere. Despite the application of big money and lots of brainpower, few of the new(More)