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Bone tissue engineering scaffolds must shape regenerating tissue, provide temporary mechanical support and enhance tissue regeneration. These requirements result in conflicting design goals. For example, increased temporary mechanical function requires a dense scaffold while enhanced cell/gene delivery requires a porous scaffold. This paper demonstrates an(More)
Precise control over scaffold material, porosity, and internal pore architecture is essential for tissue engineering. By coupling solid free form (SFF) manufacturing with conventional sponge scaffold fabrication procedures, we have developed methods for casting scaffolds that contain designed and controlled locally porous and globally porous internal(More)
Toxicity reduction evaluations (TREs) in the River Esk and Lower Tees Estuary were based on the approach described by USEPA, but adapted to tackle the specific problems of the two sites. A combination of toxicity tracking and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was used at both locations to enhance the understanding of source and type of toxicants(More)
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