Ruth M. Ruprecht

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C causes >50% of all HIV infections worldwide, and an estimated 90% of all transmissions occur mucosally with R5 strains. A pathogenic R5 simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) encoding HIV clade C env is highly desirable to evaluate candidate AIDS vaccines in nonhuman primates. To this end, we generated(More)
Although 13 years have passed since identification of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) as the cause of AIDS, we do not yet know how HIV kills its primary target, the T cell that carries the CD4 antigen. We and others have shown an increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells among circulating CD4+ (and CD8+) T cells of HIV-seropositive individuals(More)
Although maternal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission occurs during gestation, intrapartum and postpartum (by breast-feeding), 50-70% of all infected children seem to acquire HIV-1 shortly before or during delivery. Epidemiological evidence indicates that mucosal exposure is an important aspect of intrapartum HIV transmission. A simian(More)
Plasma viral RNA load is a key parameter in disease progression of lentiviral infections. To measure simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA loads, we have established a quantitative one-tube assay based on TaqMan chemistry. This real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has advantages compared with previous methods, such as higher(More)
OBJECTIVE A live attenuated SIV vaccine strain, termed SIVmac239Delta3 and containing large deletions in, and the negative regulatory element, was previously shown to cause AIDS mostly in monkeys vaccinated as infants. In the present study, we demonstrate that SIVmac239Delta3 is pathogenic in most vaccinated adult monkeys, given enough time. METHODS(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW When simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) deleted in the nef gene caused no disease in macaques and provided protection against wild-type SIV challenge, hopes were high that the removal of nef would convert a pathogenic immunodeficiency virus into a live attenuated vaccine. We seek to highlight recent studies focused on several major issues(More)
BACKGROUND Individuals living in sub-Saharan Africa represent 10% of the world's population but almost 2/3 of all HIV-1/AIDS cases. The disproportionate HIV-1 infection rates in this region may be linked to helminthic parasite infections that affect many individuals in the developing world. However, the hypothesis that parasite infection increases an(More)
Although live attenuated vaccines can provide potent protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenges, the specific immune responses that confer this protection have not been determined. To test whether cellular immune responses mediated by CD8+ lymphocytes contribute to this vaccine-induced(More)