Ruth Kandel

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Cerebral volume loss has long been associated with normal aging, but whether this is due to aging itself or to age-related diseases, including incipient Alzheimer disease, is uncertain. To understand the changes that occur in the aging brain, we examined the cerebral cortex of 27 normal individuals ranging in age from 56 to 103 years. None fulfilled the(More)
Accumulation of β-Amyloid (βA) is a key pathogenetic factor in Alzheimer's disease; however, the normal function of βA is unknown. Recent studies have shown that βA can inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. In this paper we show that βA also inhibits replication of seasonal and pandemic strains of H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A virus (IAV) in vitro. The 42 amino(More)
Primary cilia can act as either a negative or positive regulator of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Many cartilage tumors are characterized by abnormal activation of the Hh pathway. Here, we report that the presence of primary cilia occurs at a low frequency (12.4%) in neoplastic chondrocytes from malignant human chondrosarcomas, compared with(More)
Stimuli-induced fluctuations in intracellular free calcium (Ca2+) serve as secondary messenger signals that regulate diverse biochemical processes in eukaryotic cells, such as developmental transitions and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Stimuli-specific Ca2+ signals are manifested as spatially and temporally defined differential Ca2+ signatures(More)
A grapevine-derived VvMybA1 transcription factor was evaluated for its efficiency as a reporter gene by comparing it with existing reporter genes, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS). Embryogenic cultures of Vitis cultivars Thompson Seedless and Bronx Seedless were initiated from leaves of in vitro grown micropropagation cultures(More)
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