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We previously showed that anti-fibronectin antibodies or soluble fibronectin fragments containing the central cell-binding domain inhibit formation of mineralized nodules by fetal calvarial osteoblasts in vitro. These findings suggest a critical role for fibronectin in osteoblast differentiation and morphogenesis. In this study we tested the hypothesis that(More)
Space flight and bedrest result in a negative calcium balance and osteopenia. The mechanisms underlying these events are not well understood. In particular, it is not clear whether systemic or local factors are preeminent in mediating the effects of gravity on bone mineral content. Using a rat model that unweights only the hindlimbs, we determined whether(More)
Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees(More)
We have tested the hypothesis that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) regulate the proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. Cells which migrated from central bone explants of fetal calf calvaria expressed markers characteristic of the osteoblast phenotype, including osteocalcin (bone Gla protein) secretion(More)
A model that uses hindlimb unloading of rats was developed to study the consequences of skeletal unloading and reloading as occurs during and following space flight. Studies using the model were initiated two decades ago and further developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Ames Research Center. The model mimics some aspects of(More)
To evaluate the relationship between osteoblast differentiation and bioenergetics, cultured primary osteoblasts from fetal rat calvaria were grown in medium supplemented with ascorbate to induce differentiation. Before ascorbate treatment, the rate of glucose consumption was 320 nmol. h(-1). 10(6) cells(-1), respiration was 40 nmol. h(-1). 10(6) cells(-1),(More)
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were infused continuously for 13 days with vehicle or 75 pmol (31.2 ng)/day 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3] by means of Alzet osmotic minipumps implanted s.c. Animals infused with 1,25-(OH)2D3 exhibited mild hypercalcemia (11.2 vs. 10.2 mg/dl in controls), a 136% increase in the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 (187 vs.(More)
Ionizing radiation can cause substantial tissue degeneration, which may threaten the long-term health of astronauts and radiotherapy patients. To determine whether a single dose of radiation acutely compromises structural integrity in the postpubertal skeleton, 18-week-old male mice were exposed to (137)Cs gamma radiation (1 or 2 Gy). The structure of(More)
Astronauts are exposed to both musculoskeletal disuse and heavy ion radiation in space. Disuse alters the magnitude and direction of forces placed upon the skeleton causing bone remodeling, while energy deposited by ionizing radiation causes free radical formation and can lead to DNA strand breaks and oxidative damage to tissues. Radiation and disuse each(More)