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Expression of MMP-9 mRNA, a type IV collagenase gene product, was followed during embryonic development of the mouse brain using in situ hybridization. Murine embryos from 7.5 to 15 days after fertilization were sectioned and evaluated for MMP-9 expression. During early development, from day 7.5 to day 9, no signal was detected in the cells of the(More)
The critical pathways determining the resistance of tumor cells to ionizing radiation are poorly defined. Because the ras oncogene, a gene activated in many human cancers treated with radiotherapy, can induce increased radioresistance, we have asked which Ras effector pathways are significant in conferring a survival advantage to tumor cells. The(More)
hSgo2 (previously annotated as Tripin) was recently reported to be a new inner centromere protein that is essential for centromere cohesion (Kitajima et al., 2006). In this study, we show that hSgo2 exhibits a dynamic distribution pattern, and that its localization depends on the BUB1 and Aurora B kinases. hSgo2 is concentrated at the inner centromere of(More)
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is considered a non-immunogenic tumor, and immune checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy lacks efficacy in this disease. Radiotherapy (RT) can stimulate the immune system. Here, we show that treatment of KPC and Pan02 murine PDAC cells with RT and gemcitabine upregulated PD-L1 expression in a JAK/Stat1-dependent manner. In(More)
Expression of BRCA1 is commonly decreased in sporadic breast tumors, and this correlates with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Here we show that BRCA1 transcripts are selectively enriched in the Argonaute/miR-182 complex and miR-182 downregulates BRCA1 expression. Antagonizing miR-182 enhances BRCA1 protein levels and protects them from IR-induced(More)
BACKGROUND The stromal microenvironment and particularly the macrophage component of primary tumors influence their malignant potential. However, at the metastatic site the role of these cells and their mechanism of actions for establishment and growth of metastases remain largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using animal models of breast(More)
Brain-specific homing and direct interactions with the neural substance are prominent hypotheses for brain metastasis formation and a modern manifestation of Paget's "seed and soil" concept. However, there is little direct evidence for this "neurotropic" growth in vivo. In contrast, many experimental studies have anecdotally noted the propensity of(More)
Whereas large numbers of cells from a primary tumor may gain access to the circulation, few of them will give rise to metastases. The mechanism of elimination of these tumor cells, often termed "metastatic inefficiency," is poorly understood. In this study, we show that apoptosis in the lungs within 1-2 days of introduction of the cells is an important(More)
PURPOSE Locoregional recurrence is the dominant form of treatment failure in head and neck (H&N) cancer. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently amplified in this disease (<or=80%) and can lead to activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), both directly and indirectly through Ras. We have shown previously that radioresistance(More)