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This study examines cytotoxic mechanisms used by channel catfish peripheral blood-derived effector cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), coupled with [(3)H]thymidine DNA fragmentation (JAM) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays, provided the first evidence that catfish peripheral blood cytotoxic effectors killed allogeneic(More)
Long term cell lines can be readily established at high frequency with PBLs from normal channel catfish. Depending upon the mode of stimulation, morphologically and functionally distinct catfish lymphoid cell lines resembling B cells, T cells and monocytes have been developed. These fish cell lines appear unique from their putative mammalian counterparts in(More)
Cytotoxic cells isolated from the head kidney and peripheral blood of the channel catfish appear to represent distinct subpopulations of effector cells. Previous studies showed that the former lyse xenogeneic natural killer (NK) cell targets, whereas the latter preferentially lyse allogeneic cells. Here we extend these studies and present data suggesting a(More)
Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-expressing neurones are abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus and limbic system and are implicated in the regulation of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and stress responses. We investigated the role of the endogenous N/OFQ receptor (NOP) system using the nonpeptidic NOP antagonist, JTC-801(More)
Phylogenetic (tree-based) approaches to understanding evolutionary history are unable to incorporate convergent evolutionary events where two genes merge into one. In this study, as exemplars of what can be achieved when a tree is not assumed a priori, we have analysed the evolutionary histories of polyketide synthase genes and antibiotic resistance genes(More)
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