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Accumulation of ceramides within tissues induces insulin resistance. Moreover, adiponectin exerts its beneficial metabolic effects at least partially through ceramide catabolism. We hypothesized that specific plasma ceramide subspecies are elevated in obese children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and that they inversely correlate with(More)
Pathological expansion of adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic syndrome. Distinct depots develop at various times under different physiological conditions. The transcriptional cascade mediating adipogenesis is established in vitro, and centres around a core program involving PPARγ and C/EBPα. We developed an inducible, adipocyte-specific knockout(More)
High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor α (ERα) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1α regulates ERα and inflammation in vivo. HFD significantly increased(More)
FGF21, a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) superfamily, has recently emerged as a regulator of metabolism and energy utilization. However, the exact mechanism(s) whereby FGF21 mediates its actions have not been elucidated. There is considerable evidence that insulin resistance may arise from aberrant accumulation of intracellular lipids in(More)
As an adipokine in circulation, adiponectin has been extensively studied for its beneficial metabolic effects. While many important functions have been attributed to adiponectin under high-fat diet conditions, little is known about its essential role under regular chow. Employing a mouse model with inducible, acute β-cell ablation, we uncovered an essential(More)
Sphingolipids have garnered attention for their role in insulin resistance and lipotoxic cell death. We have developed transgenic mice inducibly expressing acid ceramidase that display a reduction in ceramides in adult mouse tissues. Hepatic overexpression of acid ceramidase prevents hepatic steatosis and prompts improvements in insulin action in liver and(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with increased incidence of cardiac dysfunction. Recent animal studies have demonstrated that elevated levels of ceramides cause dilated lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized ceramides are increased in children with CKD and associated with abnormal cardiac structure and function. METHODS Ceramide(More)
BACKGROUND Metabolic syndrome (MetS) appears closely linked with ceramide accumulation, inducing insulin resistance and toxicity to multiple cell types. Animal studies demonstrate that thiazolidinediones (TZDs) reduce ceramide concentrations in plasma and skeletal muscle and support lowering of ceramide levels as a potential mediator of TZDs' mechanism of(More)
The innate immune cell sensor leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the activation of caspase-1, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Herein, we tested the(More)