Ruth E. Withler

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Balancing selection maintains high levels of polymorphism and heterozygosity in genes of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) of vertebrate organisms, and promotes long evolutionary persistence of individual alleles and strongly differentiated allelic lineages. In this study, genetic variation at the MHC class II DAB-β1 locus was examined in 31(More)
The DNA sequences of four exons of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) were examined in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) from an interior (Nechako River) and a coastal (Harrison River) population in the Fraser River drainage of British Columbia. Mhc class I A1, A2 and A3 sequences and a class II B1 sequence were obtained by PCR from each of(More)
Three MHC class I genes have been characterized in salmonids: A, B, and UA. Levels of polymorphism vary among the genes, but they all share one common feature: a lack of sequence diversity. Although individual species can carry over 30 alleles at a given locus (A), intraspecific diversity is generally less than 5% in Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus), and(More)
Polymorphism of the nucleotide sequences encoding 149 amino acids of linked major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) class II 131 and 132 peptides, and of the intervening intron (548–773 base pairs), was examined within and among seven Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus) species. Levels of nucleotide diversity were higher for theB1 sequence than forB2 or the intron(More)
Geographic variation at an Mhc class I A1 exon was surveyed in 14 populations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 15 populations of chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) inhabiting rivers of British Columbia, Canada. A total of 2,504 fish were sampled using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which distinguished 17 alleles in coho salmon and 20(More)
We describe a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of nucleotide sequence variation that can be used for large-scale screening of population markers. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) detects sequence variants of amplified fragments by the differences in their melting behavior. DGGE detects most single-base substitutions when carried(More)
In Atlantic salmon aquaculture, early sexual maturation represents a major problem for producers. This is especially true for grilse, which mature after one sea winter before reaching a desirable harvest weight, rather than after two sea winters. Salmon maturing as grilse have a much lower market value than later maturing individuals. For this reason, most(More)
Identification of salmonid tissue samples to species or population of origin has been conducted for over 20 forensic cases in British Columbia. Species identification is based on published sequence variation in exon and intron regions of coding genes. Identification of source populations or regions is carried out using microsatellite and major(More)
Nest site fidelity and serial polyandry were examined in lingcod, Ophiodon elongatus, a teleost fish in which the nest-guarding male parent invests more heavily in parental care than the elusive female parent. Lingcod parental and progeny genotypes were established for fish spawning on a 200 m(2) section of Snake Island reef, British Columbia in two(More)
Domesticated chinook salmon strains in British Columbia (BC), Canada are believed to have originated primarily from populations of the Big Qualicum (BQ) River and Robertson Creek (RC) on Vancouver Island in the early 1980s. The number of parental fish that gave rise to the domesticated strains and their subsequent breeding history during approximately five(More)