Ruth E. Gilbert

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Child maltreatment remains a major public-health and social-welfare problem in high-income countries. Every year, about 4-16% of children are physically abused and one in ten is neglected or psychologically abused. During childhood, between 5% and 10% of girls and up to 5% of boys are exposed to penetrative sexual abuse, and up to three times this number(More)
Objective To determine the odds ratio and population attributable fraction associated with food and environmental risk factors for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. Design Case-control study. Setting Six large European cities. Participants Pregnant women with acute infection (cases) detected by seroconversion or positive for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM were(More)
BACKGROUND Despite three decades of prenatal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis in some European countries, uncertainty remains about the effectiveness of prenatal treatment. METHODS We did a systematic review of cohort studies based on universal screening for congenital toxoplasmosis. We did a meta-analysis using individual patients' data to assess(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects on mother to child transmission of the timing and type of prenatal treatment, taking into account gestational age at maternal seroconversion. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING European centres offering prenatal screening for toxoplasmosis. POPULATION Children born to a cohort of pregnant women with toxoplasma(More)
BACKGROUND Women who acquire toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy (in most cases detected through serological screening) require counselling about the risk of congenital infection and its clinical sequelae. Reliable estimates of risk are not currently available. We undertook an analysis of data from women referred to the toxoplasmosis reference(More)
BACKGROUND Hydrocephalus, intracranial calcification and retinochoroiditis are the most common manifestations of tissue damage due to congenital toxoplasmosis, but the effect of prenatal treatment on these outcomes is unclear. We aimed to determine the effect of prenatal treatment for toxoplasmosis on the risk of intracranial and ocular lesions in(More)
Theories supporting the existence of a use-dependent neuroplasticity in the older brain were used to guide this pilot study. A repeated-measures randomized design was used to test the effectiveness of a multimodal (Taiji exercises, cognitive-behavioral therapies, support group) intervention on cognitive functioning, physical functioning, and behavioral(More)
BACKGROUND Endothelin (ET) and angiotensin II (Ang II) are vasoactive/trophic peptides that may contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The transgenic (mRen-2)27 rat exhibits overexpression of Ang II at sites of normal physiological expression. Unlike other rat strains, the streptozotocin-induced diabetic Ren-2 rat develops progressive renal(More)
Professionals in child health, primary care, mental health, schools, social services, and law-enforcement services all contribute to the recognition of and response to child maltreatment. In all sectors, children suspected of being maltreated are under-reported to child-protection agencies. Lack of awareness of the signs of child maltreatment and processes(More)
Although the glomerulus, particularly the mesangium, has been the focus of intense investigation in diabetes, tubulointerstitial injury is also a major feature of diabetic nephropathy and an important predictor of renal dysfunction. The renal tubule in diabetes is subject to both direct and indirect pathogenetic influences as a consequence of its position(More)