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In the age of stem cell engineering it is critical to understand how stem cell activity is regulated during regeneration. Hairs are mini-organs that undergo cyclic regeneration throughout adult life, and are an important model for organ regeneration. Hair stem cells located in the follicle bulge are regulated by the surrounding microenvironment, or niche.(More)
Vertebrate embryos are characterized by an elongated antero-posterior (AP) body axis, which forms by progressive cell deposition from a posterior growth zone in the embryo. Here, we used tissue ablation in the chicken embryo to demonstrate that the caudal presomitic mesoderm (PSM) has a key role in axis elongation. Using time-lapse microscopy, we analysed(More)
Somitogenesis, the sequential formation of a periodic pattern along the antero-posterior axis of vertebrate embryos, is one of the most obvious examples of the segmental patterning processes that take place during embryogenesis and also one of the major unresolved events in developmental biology. In this article, we develop a mathematical formulation of a(More)
We found that magnocellular oxytocin neurons in adult female rats exhibit an endogenous GABA(A) receptor subunit switch around parturition: a decrease in alpha1:alpha2 subunit mRNA ratio correlated with a decrease in allopregnanolone potentiation and increase in decay time constant of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated IPSCs in these cells. The causal(More)
Long-distance cell migration is an important feature of embryonic development, adult morphogenesis and cancer, yet the mechanisms that drive subpopulations of cells to distinct targets are poorly understood. Here, we use the embryonic neural crest (NC) in tandem with theoretical studies to evaluate model mechanisms of long-distance cell migration. We find(More)
Random walk models based on an exclusion process with contact effects are often used to represent collective migration where individual agents are affected by agent-to-agent adhesion. Traditional mean-field representations of these processes take the form of a nonlinear diffusion equation which, for strong adhesion, does not predict the averaged discrete(More)
Neural crest (NC) cell migration is crucial to the formation of peripheral tissues during vertebrate development. However, how NC cells respond to different microenvironments to maintain persistence of direction and cohesion in multicellular streams remains unclear. To address this, we profiled eight subregions of a typical cranial NC cell migratory stream.(More)
Embryonic neural crest cells travel in discrete streams to precise locations throughout the head and body. We previously showed that cranial neural crest cells respond chemotactically to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and that cells within the migratory front have distinct behaviors and gene expression. We proposed a cell-induced gradient model(More)
Somites are transient blocks of cells that form sequentially along the antero-posterior axis of vertebrate embryos. They give rise to the vertebrae, ribs and other associated features of the trunk. In this work we develop and analyse a mathematical formulation of a version of the Clock and Wavefront model for somite formation, where the clock controls when(More)
In this work we present an analysis, supported by numerical simulations, of the formulation of the cell-cycle model for somitogenesis proposed in Collier et al. (J. Theor Biol. 207 (2000), 305-316). The analysis indicates that by introducing appropriate parameter constraints on model parameters the cell-cycle mechanism can indeed give rise to the periodic(More)