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BACKGROUND & AIMS HCV patients who fail conventional interferon-based therapy have limited treatment options. Dendritic cells are central to the priming and development of antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell immunity, necessary to elicit effective viral clearance. The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of vaccination with(More)
Peptide-based vaccines that directly target T cell or B cell epitopes may have significant advantages over conventional vaccines. Further, synthetic chimeric peptides that combine strong T cell epitopes with poorly immunogenic, but immunodominant, B cell epitopes or strain-conserved B cell epitopes may be useful in eliciting antibody to such important(More)
Mytilus edulis has been the subject of recent studies to determine whether the relationship between the immune and neuroendocrine systems seen in vertebrates also exists in invertebrates. The effects of mammalian monokines were studied in Mytilus immunocytes previously shown to produce and react to opioid peptides. These invertebrate cells respond to(More)
The clinical management of chronic hepatitis B infection has entered a new era with the introduction and widespread use of oral nucleoside analogues such as lamivudine and nucleotides such as adefovir dipivoxil. From this, new challenges have now emerged in terms of preventing antiviral drug resistance, promoting viral clearance and improving long-term(More)
Consensus primers specific for the L1 and E1 regions were used to amplify HPV DNA fragments. These fragments were then directly sequenced using the consensus primers as the sequencing primers. The linking of PCR amplification, direct sequencing, and computer data bank analysis provides a new approach in the detection of different HPVs and has several(More)
Prolonged treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with lamivudine ([-]-beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-3' thiacytidine) or famciclovir may select for viral mutants that are drug resistant due to point mutations in the polymerase gene. Determining whether such HBV mutants are sensitive to new antiviral agents is therefore important. We used a transient(More)
We have developed a novel method to study the subtype-specific expression of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) in the mouse system: we synthesized and used consensus oligonucleotide primers to allow simultaneous polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of multiple murine IFN-alpha gene sequences. In addition, a set of subtype-specific oligomer probes were(More)
Hepatitis C (HCV)-infected patients have a poorer survival post-liver transplantation compared to patients transplanted for other indications, since HCV recurrence post-transplant is universal and commonly follows an aggressive course. There is increasing evidence that in the non-transplant setting, induction of hepatocyte apoptosis is one of the main(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can result in a spectrum of outcomes from immune-mediated control to disease progression, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The host molecular pathways that influence and contribute to these outcomes need to be defined. Using an immunocompetent mouse model of chronic HBV infection, we identified some of the host cellular and(More)
BACKGROUND The role of neutralizing antibody (NAb) in determining response to antiviral therapy has not been established. OBJECTIVE In this study we have analysed the kinetic's of the NAb response in patients with chronic hepatitis C who received antiviral therapy. STUDY DESIGN Seventeen patients infected with genotype 1, 2a/c or 3a hepatitis C virus(More)