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The final report of the World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (CSDH), published in 2008, affirmed that social injustice was killing on a grand scale, with a toxic combination of 'poor social policies and programmes, unfair economic arrangements, and bad politics' being responsible for producing and reinforcing health(More)
The Commission on Social Determinants of Health, created to marshal the evidence on what can be done to promote health equity and to foster a global movement to achieve it, is a global collaboration of policy makers, researchers, and civil society, led by commissioners with a unique blend of political, academic, and advocacy experience. The focus of(More)
The European region has seen remarkable heath gains in those populations that have experienced progressive improvements in the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, and work. However, inequities, both between and within countries, persist. The review reported here, of inequities in health between and within countries across the 53 Member States(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe recent trends in prevalence, outcomes and indicators of care for women with pre-existing type I or type II diabetes. DESIGN Regional population-based survey. SETTING All maternity units in the North of England. POPULATION A total of 1258 pregnancies in women with pre-existing diabetes delivered between 1996 and 2004. METHODS(More)
CONTEXT Evidence suggests an association between maternal obesity and some congenital anomalies. OBJECTIVE To assess current evidence of the association between maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and congenital anomaly. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus (January 1966 through May 2008) were searched for English-language studies using a(More)
INTRODUCTION Lymphoedema-distichiasis syndrome (LD) (OMIM 153400) is a rare, primary lymphoedema of pubertal onset, associated with distichiasis. Causative mutations have now been described in FOXC2, a forkhead transcription factor gene. Numerous clinical associations have been reported with this condition, including congenital heart disease, ptosis,(More)
BACKGROUND Whilst there has been increasing research interest in interventions which promote physical activity during pregnancy few studies have yielded detailed insights into the views and experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women themselves. The qualitative study described in this paper aimed to: (i) explore the views and experiences of(More)
BACKGROUND Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity(More)
Primary congenital lymphoedema (Milroy disease) is a rare autosomal dominant condition for which a major causative gene defect has recently been determined. Mutations in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3) gene have now been described in 13 families world-wide. This is a review of the condition based on the clinical findings in 71(More)
BACKGROUND Research on the potential impact of air pollution on the health of adults and children has grown rapidly over the last decade. Recent studies have suggested that air pollution could also be associated with adverse effects on the developing fetus. This systematic review evaluates the current level of epidemiologic evidence on the association(More)