Ruth B. Caldwell

Learn More
Collectively, angiogenic ocular conditions represent the leading cause of irreversible vision loss in developed countries. In the US, for example, retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the principal causes of blindness in the infant, working age and elderly populations, respectively. Evidence suggests that(More)
Increases in arginase activity have been reported in a variety of disease conditions characterized by vascular dysfunction. Arginase competes with NO synthase for their common substrate arginine, suggesting a cause and effect relationship. We tested this concept by experiments with streptozotocin diabetic rats and high glucose (HG)-treated bovine coronary(More)
Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and neurotoxicity. These pathologies have been associated with oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, which may operate by activating their downstream target p38 MAP kinase. In the present study, the protective effects of a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD),(More)
The purpose of these experiments was to determine the specific role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown that characterizes the early stages of vascular dysfunction in diabetes. Based on our data showing that high glucose increases nitric oxide, superoxide, and nitrotyrosine formation in retinal endothelial cells, we(More)
PURPOSE To determine transforming growth factor (TGF) beta effects on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as a potential cause of the blood-retinal barrier breakdown at the onset of angiogenesis. Previously, glial cells were shown to play a role in the angiogenesis process and to express the angiogenic regulating factor TGF-beta, which becomes active under(More)
Retinal neovascularization and macular edema are central features of diabetic retinopathy, the major cause of blindness in the developed world. Current treatments are limited in their efficacy and are associated with significant adverse effects. Characterization of the molecular and cellular processes involved in vascular growth and permeability has led to(More)
The modulation of angiogenic signaling by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an emerging area of interest in cellular and vascular biology research. We provide evidence here that peroxynitrite, the powerful oxidizing and nitrating free radical, is critically involved in transduction of the VEGF signal. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF induces peroxynitrite(More)
Retinal neovascularization and macular edema are central features of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of blindness in working age adults. The currently established treatment for diabetic retinopathy targets the vascular pathology by laser photocoagulation. This approach is associated with significant adverse effects due the destruction of neural tissue(More)
Corneal avascularity-the absence of blood vessels in the cornea-is required for optical clarity and optimal vision, and has led to the cornea being widely used for validating pro- and anti-angiogenic therapeutic strategies for many disorders. But the molecular underpinnings of the avascular phenotype have until now remained obscure and are all the more(More)
L-citrulline is the natural precursor of L-arginine, substrate for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the production of NO. Supplemental administration L-arginine has been shown to be effective in improving NO production and cardiovascular function in cardiovascular diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction, such as hypertension, heart failure,(More)