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OBJECTIVE The incidence of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among Alaska Native children is much higher than among non-Native populations in the United States. We conducted this study to better understand factors associated with hospitalization attributable to RSV infection in this high-risk population. DESIGN Case-control(More)
The safety, infectivity, immunogenicity, transmissibility, and phenotypic stability of an intranasal bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) candidate vaccine was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3)-seronegative children, 92% were infected, and 92% developed a serum(More)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cpts530/1030 is an attenuated, temperature-sensitive subgroup A vaccine candidate derived previously from cold-passaged RSV (cpRSV) by two sequential rounds of chemical mutagenesis and biological selection. Here, cpts530/1030 was shown to be highly attenuated in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of seronegative(More)
Laboratory diagnostics are a core component of any pneumonia etiology study. Recent advances in diagnostic technology have introduced newer methods that have greatly improved the ability to identify respiratory pathogens. However, determining the microbial etiology of pneumonia remains a challenge, especially in children. This is largely because of the(More)
Cold passage 18 (CP18) parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV-3) vaccine was evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 95 infants and young children. None of 19 seropositive older children 41 to 124 months old became infected when 10(6) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of vaccine virus was administered intranasally. Two of(More)
Live rotavirus vaccine candidates representing VP7 serotypes 1, 2, 3 or 4 derived by reassortment between bovine UK rotavirus and human rotavirus strains D, DS-1, P or ST3 were evaluated for safety and immunogenicity in adults, children and infants. Infection was defined by evidence of rotavirus shed in stools or a 4-fold or greater increase in serum(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in animal models have shown that systemic immunization with a papillomavirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine composed of L1, a major structural viral protein, can confer protection against subsequent experimental challenge with the homologous virus. Here we report results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial to(More)
A live, cold-passaged (cp) candidate vaccine virus, designated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) B1 cp-52/2B5 (cp-52), replicated efficiently in Vero cells, but was found to be overattenuated for RSV-seronegative infants and children. Sequence analysis of reverse-transcription-PCR-amplified fragments of this mutant revealed a large deletion spanning most of(More)
This report updates the 2013 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) regarding use of seasonal influenza vaccines. Updated information for the 2014-15 influenza season includes 1) antigenic composition of U.S. seasonal influenza vaccines; 2) vaccine dose considerations for children aged 6 months through 8 years; and 3) a(More)
Influenza A virus infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Standard diagnostic methods either are not efficient in identifying infected individuals in a timely manner or lack sensitivity. We developed a PCR-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) for the detection of influenza A virus RNA in respiratory secretions. A reverse transcription PCR(More)