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In schistosomiasis control, there is a need to geographically target treatment to populations at high risk of morbidity. This paper evaluates alternative sampling strategies for surveys of Schistosoma mansoni to target mass drug administration in Kenya and Ethiopia. Two main designs are considered: lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) of children from all(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine dipstick test for detecting Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium alongside an integrated rapid mapping survey in Southern Sudan. METHODS AND RESULTS A total of 373 children aged 5-16 years were included in the study. Of these 26.0% were infected with S.(More)
BACKGROUND In Ethiopia, malaria transmission is seasonal and unstable, with both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax endemic. Such spatial and temporal clustering of malaria only serves to underscore the importance of regularly collecting up-to-date malaria surveillance data to inform decision-making in malaria control. Cross-sectional school-based(More)
BACKGROUND Plasmodium-helminth coinfection can have a number of consequences for infected hosts, yet our knowledge of the epidemiology of coinfection across multiple settings is limited. This study investigates the distribution and heterogeneity of coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum and 3 major helminth species across East Africa. METHODS(More)
A 1.8-kilobase (kb) cDNA clone for a beta 1 subunit of the human gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptor has been isolated and sequenced. The longest open reading frame of the clone, pCLL610, contains nucleotide sequence encoding a portion of the putative signal sequence followed by 449 amino acids of the entire mature protein. The deduced amino acid(More)
[3H]2-Nitroimipramine ([3H]2-NI), a compound with high affinity for the serotonin uptake system, is shown to be an effective photoaffinity probe which incorporates covalently into membrane homogenates prepared from human platelets, as well as rat brain and liver. In all cases, [3H]2-NI preferentially incorporated into a minor membrane component of 30 kd(More)
BACKGROUND Lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Uganda is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes. The mainstay of elimination has been annual mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole, targeted to endemic districts, but has been sporadic and incomplete in coverage. Vector control could potentially contribute to(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and variable, caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. The Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) is scaling up parasitological diagnosis of malaria at all levels of the health system; at peripheral health facilities this will be through use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). The present(More)
BACKGROUND Study objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of commonly used post-campaign hang-up visits on the hanging and use of campaign nets. METHODS A cluster-randomized trial was carried out in Uganda following an ITN distribution campaign. Five clusters (parishes, consisting of ∼11 villages each) were randomly selected for each of the three study(More)
As momentum towards malaria elimination grows, strategies are being developed for scale-up in elimination settings. One prominent strategy, reactive case detection (RACD), involves screening and treating individuals living in close proximity to passively detected, or “index” cases. This study aims to use RACD to quantify Plasmodium parasitaemia in(More)