Rut Carballido-López

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In the absence of an overt cytoskeleton, the external cell wall of bacteria has traditionally been assumed to be the primary determinant of cell shape. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, two related genes, mreB and mbl, were shown to be required for different aspects of cell morphogenesis. Subcellular localization of the MreB and Mbl proteins(More)
The peptidoglycan cell wall and the actin-like MreB cytoskeleton are major determinants of cell shape in rod-shaped bacteria. The prevailing model postulates that helical, membrane-associated MreB filaments organize elongation-specific peptidoglycan-synthesizing complexes along sidewalls. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to(More)
Recent advances have shown conclusively that bacterial cells possess distant but true homologues of actin (MreB, ParM, and the recently uncovered MamK protein). Despite weak amino acid sequence similarity, MreB and ParM exhibit high structural homology to actin. Just like F-actin in eukaryotes, MreB and ParM assemble into highly dynamic filamentous(More)
MreB proteins are bacterial actin homologs involved in cell morphogenesis and various other cellular processes. However, the effector proteins used by MreBs remain largely unknown. Bacillus subtilis has three MreB isoforms. Mbl and possibly MreB have previously been shown to be implicated in cell wall synthesis. We have now found that the third isoform,(More)
Mbl is a bacterial actin homolog that controls cell morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis. A functional GFP-Mbl fusion protein was used to examine the behavior of the helical cables formed by Mbl protein in live B. subtilis cells. The cables undergo dynamic changes during cell cycle progression. They are stable but not rigid while elongating in parallel with(More)
The thick wall of gram-positive bacteria is a polymer meshwork composed predominantly of peptidoglycan (PG) and teichoic acids, both of which have a critical function in maintenance of the structural integrity and the shape of the cell. In Bacillus subtilis 168 the major teichoic acid is covalently coupled to PG and is known as wall teichoic acid (WTA).(More)
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is a primitive differentiation process involving two cell types, the forespore and the mother cell. Each cell implements two successive transcription programmes controlled by specific sigma factors. We report that activity of sigma(G), the late forespore sigma factor, is kept in check by Gin, the product of csfB, a gene(More)
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by a cascade of four sigma factors that are held into inactive form until the proper stage of development. The Gin protein, encoded by csfB, is able to strongly inhibit the activity of one of these factors, sigma(G), in vivo. The csfB gene is present in a large number of endospore formers, but the various Gin(More)
MreB proteins play a major role during morphogenesis of rod-shaped bacteria by organizing biosynthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall. However, the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. In Bacillus subtilis, membrane-associated MreB polymers have been shown to be associated to elongation-specific complexes containing transmembrane(More)
We have generated a protein-protein interaction network in Bacillus subtilis focused on several essential cellular processes such as cell division, cell responses to various stresses, the bacterial cytoskeleton, DNA replication and chromosome maintenance by careful application of the yeast two-hybrid approach. This network, composed of 793 interactions(More)