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Developing networks follow common rules to shift from silent cells to coactive networks that operate via thousands of synapses. This review deals with some of these rules and in particular those concerning the crucial role of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric acid (GABA), which operates primarily via chloride-permeable GABA(A) receptor channels. In(More)
Sensorimotor coordination emerges early in development. The maturation period is characterized by the establishment of somatotopic cortical maps, the emergence of long-range cortical connections, heightened experience-dependent plasticity and spontaneous uncoordinated skeletal movement. How these various processes cooperate to allow the somatosensory system(More)
During postnatal development of the rat hippocampus, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) switches its action on CA3 pyramidal cells from excitatory to inhibitory. To characterize the underlying changes in the GABA reversal potential, we used somatic cell-attached recordings of GABA(A) and N-methyl-D-aspartate channels to monitor the GABA driving force and(More)
Severe head trauma causes widespread neuronal shear injuries and acute seizures. Shearing of neural processes might contribute to seizures by disrupting the transmembrane ion gradients that subserve normal synaptic signaling. To test this possibility, we investigated changes in intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) associated with the widespread(More)
GABA depolarizes immature cortical neurons. However, whether GABA excites immature neocortical neurons and drives network oscillations as in other brain structures remains controversial. Excitatory actions of GABA depend on three fundamental parameters: the resting membrane potential (Em), reversal potential of GABA (E(GABA)), and threshold of action(More)
A primary feature of the preterm infant electroencephalogram is the presence of large infra-slow potentials containing rapid oscillations called slow activity transients (SATs). Such activity has not been described in animal models, and their generative mechanisms are unknown. Here we use direct-current and multisite extracellular, as well as whole-cell,(More)
The behavior of immature cortical networks in vivo remains largely unknown. Using multisite extracellular and patch-clamp recordings, we observed recurrent bursts of synchronized neuronal activity lasting 0.5 to 3 seconds that occurred spontaneously in the hippocampus of freely moving and anesthetized rat pups. The influence of slow rhythms (0.33 and 0.1(More)
We report a signaling mechanism in rats between mother and fetus aimed at preparing fetal neurons for delivery. In immature neurons, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. We found that, shortly before delivery, there is a transient reduction in the intracellular chloride concentration and an excitatory-to-inhibitory(More)
During visual system development, the light-insensitive retina spontaneously generates waves of activity, which are transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus. The crucial question is whether retinal waves are further transmitted to the cortex and influence the early cortical patterns of activity. Using simultaneous recordings from the rat retina and(More)
Delta-brush is the dominant pattern of rapid oscillatory activity (8-25 Hz) in the human cortex during the third trimester of gestation. Here, we studied the relationship between delta-brushes in the somatosensory cortex and spontaneous movements of premature human neonates of 29-31 weeks postconceptional age using a combination of scalp(More)