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Developing networks follow common rules to shift from silent cells to coactive networks that operate via thousands of synapses. This review deals with some of these rules and in particular those concerning the crucial role of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobuytric acid (GABA), which operates primarily via chloride-permeable GABA(A) receptor channels. In(More)
Sensorimotor coordination emerges early in development. The maturation period is characterized by the establishment of somatotopic cortical maps, the emergence of long-range cortical connections, heightened experience-dependent plasticity and spontaneous uncoordinated skeletal movement. How these various processes cooperate to allow the somatosensory system(More)
The behavior of immature cortical networks in vivo remains largely unknown. Using multisite extracellular and patch-clamp recordings, we observed recurrent bursts of synchronized neuronal activity lasting 0.5 to 3 seconds that occurred spontaneously in the hippocampus of freely moving and anesthetized rat pups. The influence of slow rhythms (0.33 and 0.1(More)
Developing cortex generates endogenous activity that modulates the formation of functional units, but how this activity is altered to support mature function is poorly understood. Using recordings from the visual cortex of preterm human infants and neonatal rats, we report a "bursting" period of visual responsiveness during which the weak retinal output is(More)
GABA depolarizes immature cortical neurons. However, whether GABA excites immature neocortical neurons and drives network oscillations as in other brain structures remains controversial. Excitatory actions of GABA depend on three fundamental parameters: the resting membrane potential (Em), reversal potential of GABA (E(GABA)), and threshold of action(More)
During visual system development, the light-insensitive retina spontaneously generates waves of activity, which are transmitted to the lateral geniculate nucleus. The crucial question is whether retinal waves are further transmitted to the cortex and influence the early cortical patterns of activity. Using simultaneous recordings from the rat retina and(More)
1. Cell-attached and whole-cell recordings from interneurons localized in the stratum radiatum of the CA3 subfield (SR-CA3) of neonatal (postnatal days 2-5) rat hippocampal slices were performed to study their activity during the generation of GABAergic giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) in CA3 pyramidal cells. 2. Dual recordings revealed that during the(More)
Severe head trauma causes widespread neuronal shear injuries and acute seizures. Shearing of neural processes might contribute to seizures by disrupting the transmembrane ion gradients that subserve normal synaptic signaling. To test this possibility, we investigated changes in intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl(-)](i)) associated with the widespread(More)
In vivo studies suggest that ontogenesis of limbic seizures is determined by the development of the limbic circuit. We have now used the newly-developed in vitro intact interconnected neonatal rat limbic structures preparation to determine the developmental profile of kainate-induced epileptiform activity in the hippocampus and its propagation to other(More)
The main ionotropic receptors (GABAA, NMDA and AMPA) display a sequential participation in neuronal excitation in the neonatal hippocampus. GABA, the principal inhibitory transmitter in the adult CNS, acts as an excitatory transmitter in early postnatal stage. Glutamatergic synaptic transmission is first purely NMDA-receptor based and lacks functional AMPA(More)