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A model is described for creating three-dimensional animated characters. In this new type of layered construction technique, called the elastic surface layer model, a simulated elastically deformable skin surface is wrapped around a traditional kinematic articulated figure. Unlike previous layered models, the skin is free to slide along the underlying(More)
The newest three-dimensional input devices, together with high speed graphics workstations, make it possible to interactively specify virtual camera motions for animation in real time. In this paper, we describe how naturalistic interaction and realistic-looking motion can be achieved by using a physically-based model of the camera's behavior. Our approach(More)
A technique is described for adding natural-looking hair to standard rendering algorithms. Using an explicit hair model in which each individual hair is represented by a three-dimensional curved cylinder the technique uses pixel blending combined with Z-buffer and shadow buffer information from the scene to yield a final anti-aliased image with soft(More)
An object-oriented design is presented for building dynamic three-dimensional applications. This design takes the form of the Fifth Dimension Toolkit consisting of a set of interrelated classes whose instances may be connected together in a variety of ways to form different applications. Animation is obtained by connecting graphical objects to dynamic(More)
An interactive system is described for creating and animating deformable 3D characters. By using a hybrid layered model of kinematic and physics-based components together with an immersive 3D direct manipulation interface, it is possible to quickly construct characters that deform naturally when animated and whose behavior can be controlled interactively(More)
Virtual reality systems provide realistic look and feel by seamlessly integrating three-dimensional input and output devices. One software architecture approach to constructing such systems is to distribute the application between a computation-intensive simulator back-end and a graphics-intensive viewer front-end which implements user interaction. In this(More)
This paper discusses the use of rewriting systems for animation purpose. In particular, it describes the design of timed parameterized L-systems with conditional and pseudo-stochastic productions. It proposes a formulation to integrate the various features of L-systems into a unique L-system. It also introduces into the symbolism a way of using vector force(More)