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Calculation of the centroid of the images of individual fluorescent particles and molecules allows localization and tracking in light microscopes to a precision about an order of magnitude greater than the microscope resolution. The factors that limit the precision of these techniques are examined and a simple equation derived that describes the precision(More)
In human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a characteristic pattern of frontal and parietal activity is produced by many different cognitive demands. Although frontoparietal cortex has been shown to represent a variety of task features in different contexts, little is known about detailed representation of different task features within and(More)
Visual imagery is mediated via top-down activation of visual cortex. Similar to stimulus-driven perception, the neural configurations associated with visual imagery are differentiated according to content. For example, imagining faces or places differentially activates visual areas associated with perception of actual face or place stimuli. However, while(More)
In goal neglect, a person ignores some task requirement though being able to describe it. Goal neglect is closely related to general intelligence or C. Spearman's (1904) g (J. Duncan, H. Emslie, P. Williams, R. Johnson, & C. Freer, 1996). The authors tested the role of task complexity in neglect and the hypothesis that different task components in some(More)
Organization of behavior into a nested hierarchy of tasks and subtasks is characteristic of purposive cognition in humans. While frontoparietal regions have been shown to represent many kinds of task events, their representation of task/subtask structure has not been directly investigated. On each trial of the current study, participants carried out a(More)
The mechanisms of attention prioritize sensory input for efficient perceptual processing. Influential theories suggest that attentional biases are mediated via preparatory activation of task-relevant perceptual representations in visual cortex, but the neural evidence for a preparatory coding model of attention remains incomplete. In this experiment, we(More)
Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used(More)
Frontoparietal cortex is thought to be essential for flexible behavior, but the mechanism for control remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate a potentially critical property of this cortex: its dynamic configuration for coding of task-critical information. Using multivoxel pattern analysis of human functional imaging data, we demonstrate an adaptive change in(More)
Many varieties of working memory have been linked to fluid intelligence. In Duncan et al. (Journal of Experimental Psychology:General 137:131-148, 2008), we described limited working memory for new task rules: When rules are complex, some may fail in their control of behavior, though they are often still available for explicit recall. Unlike other kinds of(More)
Classic social psychology studies demonstrate that people can behave in ways that contradict their intentions--especially within the moral domain. We measured brain activity while subjects decided between financial self-benefit (earning money) and preventing physical harm (applying an electric shock) to a confederate under both real and hypothetical(More)