Learn More
BACKGROUND Dose-dependent processes are common within biological systems and include phenotypic changes following exposures to both endogenous and xenobiotic molecules. The use of microarray technology to explore the molecular signals that underlie these dose-dependent processes has become increasingly common; however, the number of software tools for(More)
Gene expression data from microarrays are being applied to predict preclinical and clinical endpoints, but the reliability of these predictions has not been established. In the MAQC-II project, 36 independent teams analyzed six microarray data sets to generate predictive models for classifying a sample with respect to one of 13 endpoints indicative of lung(More)
A physiological examination of mice harboring a null allele at the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) locus revealed that the encoded aryl hydrocarbon receptor plays a role in the resolution of fetal vascular structures during development. Although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is more commonly studied for its role in regulating xenobiotic metabolism and dioxin(More)
Formaldehyde (FA), an endogenous cellular aldehyde, is a rat nasal carcinogen. In this study, concentration and exposure duration transitions in FA mode of action (MOA) were examined with pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling for tissue formaldehyde acetal (FAcetal) and glutathione (GSH) and with histopathology and gene expression in nasal epithelium from rats(More)
High-throughput in vitro toxicity screening can provide an efficient way to identify potential biological targets for chemicals. However, relying on nominal assay concentrations may misrepresent potential in vivo effects of these chemicals due to differences in bioavailability, clearance, and exposure. Hepatic metabolic clearance and plasma protein binding(More)
We describe a framework for estimating the human dose at which a chemical significantly alters a biological pathway in vivo, making use of in vitro assay data and an in vitro-derived pharmacokinetic model, coupled with estimates of population variability and uncertainty. The quantity we calculate, the biological pathway altering dose (BPAD), is analogous to(More)
Many chemicals in commerce today have undergone limited or no safety testing. To reduce the number of untested chemicals and prioritize limited testing resources, several governmental programs are using high-throughput in vitro screens for assessing chemical effects across multiple cellular pathways. In this study, metabolic clearance and plasma protein(More)
Repeated and acute exposure studies assessed time and concentration-dependencies of nasal responses to formaldehyde. Exposures were to 0, 0.7, 2, and 6 ppm for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 3 weeks. Neither cell proliferation nor histopathology was observed at 0.7 ppm. At 6 ppm, cell proliferation increased at the end of the first week (day 5), but not at(More)
The traditional approach for performing a chemical risk assessment is time and resource intensive leading to a limited number of published assessments on which to base human health decisions. In comparison, most contaminated sites contain chemicals without published reference values or cancer slope factors that are not considered quantitatively in the(More)
RNA-seq is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying transcription and splicing events, both known and novel. However, given its recent development and the proliferation of library construction methods, understanding the bias it introduces is incomplete but critical to realizing its value. We present a method, in vitro transcription sequencing(More)