Russell S Kirby

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BACKGROUND In the United States, birth defects affect approximately 3% of all births, are a leading cause of infant mortality, and contribute substantially to childhood morbidity. METHODS Population-based data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network were combined to estimate the prevalence of 21 selected defects for 1999-2001, stratified by(More)
BACKGROUND The National Birth Defects Prevention Network collects state-specific birth defects surveillance data for annual publication of prevalence estimates and collaborative research projects. In 2006, data for 21 birth defects from 1999 through 2001 were presented as national birth prevalence estimates. The purpose of this report was to update these(More)
This study evaluated independent effects of maternal and paternal age on risk of autism spectrum disorder. A case-cohort design was implemented using data from 10 US study sites participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. The 1994 birth cohort included 253,347 study-site births(More)
OBJECTIVE In an effort to reduce the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTDs), folic acid fortification of US enriched grain products was authorized by the Food and Drug Administration in March 1996 and required by January 1998. Fortification has been shown to result in an important decline in the prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in the general US(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of NTDs in the US declined significantly after mandatory folic acid fortification; however, it is not known if the prevalence of NTDs has continued to decrease in recent years relative to the period immediately following the fortification mandate. METHODS Population-based data from 21 birth defects surveillance systems were used(More)
BACKGROUND This study was designed to evaluate the hypothesis that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children in the United States is positively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS A cross-sectional study was implemented with data from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, a multiple source(More)
BACKGROUND In 1992, the United States Public Health Service recommended that all women of childbearing age consume 400 microg of folic acid daily. The Food and Drug Administration authorized the addition of synthetic folic acid to grain products in March 1996 with mandatory compliance by January 1998. The impact of these public health policies on the(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to estimate the prevalence of cerebral palsy and cerebral palsy subtypes among children in 3 areas of the United States by using a population-based surveillance system. METHODS Using methods developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program, investigators(More)
OBJECTIVE At what age are children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified by community providers? What factors influence the timing of when children are identified with ASDs? This study examined the timing of when children with ASDs are identified. METHOD Data came from 13 sites participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to examine racial and ethnic disparities in the recognition of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHODS Within a multisite network, 2568 children aged 8 years were identified as meeting surveillance criteria for ASD through abstraction of evaluation records from multiple sources. Through logistic regression with random effects for(More)