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Operant self-administration (SA) is an important model of motivation to consume ethanol (EtOH), but low rates of voluntary consumption in rats are thought to necessitate water deprivation and saccharin/sucrose fading for acquisition of responding. Here, we sought to devise an effective model of SA that does not use water deprivation or saccharin/sucrose(More)
Current antipsychotic drugs (APDs) show efficacy with positive symptoms, but are limited in treating negative or cognitive features of schizophrenia. Whereas all currently FDA-approved medications target primarily the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) to inhibit G(i/o)-mediated adenylyl cyclase, a recent study has shown that many APDs affect not only G(i/o)- but(More)
The proteasome cleaves intracellular proteins into peptides. Earlier studies found that treatment of human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells with epoxomicin (an irreversible proteasome inhibitor) generally caused a decrease in levels of intracellular peptides. However, bortezomib (an antitumor drug and proteasome inhibitor) caused an unexpected increase(More)
Operant oral self-administration methods are commonly used to study the reinforcing properties of ethanol in animals. However, the standard methods require saccharin/sucrose fading, water deprivation and/or extended training to initiate operant responding in rats. This paper describes a novel and efficient method to quickly initiate operant responding for(More)
Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2 and mGluR3) may control relapse of alcohol seeking, but previously available Group II agonists were unable to discriminate between mGluR2 and mGluR3. Here we use AZD8529, a novel positive allosteric mGluR2 modulator, to determine the role of this receptor for alcohol-related behaviors in rats. We assessed(More)
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