Russell P Main

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Walking involves a cyclic exchange of gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy of the center of mass. Our goal was to understand how the limbs of walking quadrupeds coordinate the vertical movements of the fore and hind quarters to produce these inverted pendulum-like movements. We collected kinematic and ground reaction force data from dogs(More)
Most studies examining changes in mechanical performance in animals across size have typically focused on inter-specific comparisons across large size ranges. Scale effects, however, can also have important consequences in vertebrates as they increase in size and mass during ontogeny. The goal of this study was to examine how growth and development in the(More)
As tetrapods increase in size and weight through ontogeny, the limb skeleton must grow to accommodate the increases in body weight and the resulting locomotor forces placed upon the limbs. No study to date, however, has examined how morphological changes in the limb skeleton during growth reflect ontogenetic patterns of limb loading and the resulting(More)
a Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Natural Resources and Environment (NRE), Earth Observation Group, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama Street, Stanford, CA 94305, USA c RIT: Center for Imaging Science, Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Group, 54 Lomb(More)
Visualizing the three-dimensional morphology and spatial patterning of cells embedded deep within dense connective tissues of the musculoskeletal system has been possible only by utilizing destructive techniques. Here we utilize fructose-based clearing solutions to image cell connectivity and deep tissue-scale patterning in situ by standard confocal(More)
—The evolution of scutes in thyreophoran dinosaurs, based on Scutellosaurus, Scelidosaurus, Stegosaurus, and several ankylosaurs, began with small rounded or ovoid structures that typically had slight, anteroposteriorly oriented keels. These scutes were elaborated in two general and overlapping ways: they could flare laterally and asymmetrically beneath the(More)
The ability of the skeleton to adapt to mechanical stimuli diminishes with age in diaphyseal cortical bone, making bone formation difficult for adults. However, the effect of aging on adaptation in cancellous bone, tissue which is preferentially lost with age, is not well characterized. To develop a model for early post-menopausal women and determine the(More)
Bone loss occurs during adulthood in both women and men and affects trabecular bone more than cortical bone. The mechanism responsible for trabecular bone loss during adulthood remains unexplained, but may be due at least in part to a reduced mechanoresponsiveness. We hypothesized that trabecular and cortical bone would respond anabolically to loading and(More)
Mechanical loading can be used to increase bone mass and thus attenuate pathological bone loss. Because the skeleton's adaptive response to loading is most robust before adulthood, elucidating sex-specific responses during growth may help maximize peak bone mass. This study investigated the effect of sex on the response to controlled, in vivo mechanical(More)
Remote sensing is viewed as a cost-effective alternative to intensive field surveys in assessing site factors that affect growth of Eucalyptus grandis over broad areas. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing to discriminate between site qualities in E. grandis plantation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The(More)