Learn More
BACKGROUND Neuropathic pain due to nerve injury is one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. Following peripheral nerve injury, neuronal and glial plastic changes contribute to central sensitization and perpetuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodents. The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is pivotal in this spinal cord(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CBR2) inhibits microglial reactivity through a molecular mechanism yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that CBR2 activation induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in microglia by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, via mitogen-activated protein kinase-phosphatase (MKP) induction. MKPs(More)
There is a growing body of preclinical evidence for the potential involvement of glial cells in neuropathic pain conditions. Several glial-targeted agents are in development for the treatment of pain conditions. Here we report the failure of a glial modulating agent, propentofylline, to decrease pain reported in association with post-herpetic neuralgia. We(More)
BACKGROUND An alarming portion of patients develop persistent or chronic pain following surgical procedures, but the mechanisms underlying the transition from acute to chronic pain states are not fully understood. In general, endocannabinoids (ECBs) inhibit nociceptive processing by stimulating cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB(1)) and type 2 (CB(2)). We(More)
Persistent postoperative pain is a very common phenomenon which severely affects the lives of patients who develop it following common surgical procedures. Opioid analgesics are of limited efficacy in the treatment of persistent pain states because of side effects including antinociceptive tolerance. We have previously shown that surgical incision injury(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer, with a median survival of less than 2 years after diagnosis. The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in tumor invasion and progression. Microglia and infiltrating macrophages are the most abundant immune cells in the tumor. In the present study, we demonstrate(More)
UNLABELLED Peripheral nerve injury generally results in spinal neuronal and glial plastic changes associated with chronic behavioral hypersensitivity. Spinal mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), eg, p38 or extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), are instrumental in the development of chronic allodynia in rodents, and new p38 inhibitors have(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play critical roles in the central nervous system immune responses through glial function, which are regulated with relative selectivity (or preference) by MAPK phosphatases (MKP). Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) is preferentially dephosphorylated by MKP-3, which display little(More)
  • 1