Russell N Van Gelder

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The heterogeneity of neural gene expression and the spatially limited expression of many low-abundance messenger RNAs in the brain has made cloning and analysis of such messages difficult. To generate amounts of nucleic acids sufficient for use in standard cloning strategies, we have devised a method for producing amplified heterogeneous populations of RNA(More)
Although mice lacking rod and cone photoreceptors are blind, they retain many eye-mediated responses to light, possibly through photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. These cells express melanopsin, a photopigment that confers this photosensitivity. Mice lacking melanopsin still retain nonvisual photoreception, suggesting that rods and cones could operate(More)
We measured daily gene expression in heads of control and period mutant Drosophila by using oligonucleotide microarrays. In control flies, 72 genes showed diurnal rhythms in light-dark cycles; 22 of these also oscillated in free-running conditions. The period gene significantly influenced the expression levels of over 600 nonoscillating transcripts.(More)
Lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), an enzyme present mainly in the retinal pigmented epithelial cells and liver, converts all-trans-retinol into all-trans-retinyl esters. In the retinal pigmented epithelium, LRAT plays a key role in the retinoid cycle, a two-cell recycling system that replenishes the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rhodopsin and cone(More)
Mammalian circadian rhythms of activity are generated within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Transcripts from the imprinted, paternally expressed Magel2 gene, which maps to the chromosomal region associated with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), are highly enriched in the SCN. The Magel2 message is circadianly expressed and peaks during the subjective day.(More)
The daily light-dark (LD) cycle exerts a powerful influence on the temporal organization of behavior and physiology. Much of this influence is preserved in behaviorally blind retinally degenerate mice; the photoreceptors underlying this nonvisual phototransduction are unknown. The mammalian eye contains at least two classes of photoactive pigments, the(More)
Melanopsin-expressing, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) form a light-sensitive system separate from rods and cones. Direct light stimulation of ipRGCs can regulate many nonimage-forming visual functions such as photoentrainment of circadian rhythms and pupil responses, and can intensify migraine headache in adults. In mice,(More)
The Drosophila melanogaster period (per) gene is required for expression of endogenous circadian rhythms of locomotion and eclosion. per mRNA is expressed with a circadian rhythm that is dependent on Per protein; this feedback loop has been proposed to be essential to the central circadian pacemaker. This model would suggest the Per protein also controls(More)
The embryonic chicken iris constricts to light ex vivo, but with characteristics atypical of visual phototransduction. The chick iris was most sensitive to short-wavelength light, demonstrating an action spectrum consistent with cryptochrome rather than with opsin pigments. Pupillary responses did not attenuate after saturating light exposure, but showed(More)